This first part of the book analysed the notion of self-consciousness and presented some major challenges in the current debate. Reflective theories of self-consciousness fail. The core of self-consciousness cannot be understood as a dual-digit, reflective relationship because this leads to infinite regress or vicious circularity. Likewise, it cannot be understood as propositional. Thus, a pre-reflective alternative is needed. However, current pre-reflective accounts suffer from two problems: First, they focus on what self-consciousness is not rather than what it is. This is what has been called the “ex negativo” challenge here. Additionally, non-egological, pre-reflective theories cannot explain the unity of the phenomenon.