The Nation

  • Reinhold KramerEmail author


Two expressions of the decline of grand narratives are the declining trust in politicians and the arrival of an ethos that prioritizes the individual over the system and the consumer over the citizen. Group identities haven’t faded, but self-sacrifice for the group or nation has diminished. On the international level, postmodernity’s deregulatory trend of economic globalization has severely limited national sovereignties. In trade and in multilateral institutions such as the EU and the UN, the world is increasingly postmodern, with no single foundation and no empire that can dictate terms. Although this post-Westphalian system frees capital to exploit labour, the system has also nearly erased wars between nations. According to Kramer, a contractarian system is emerging that still allows for selective national sovereignty.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.English and Creative WritingBrandon UniversityBrandonCanada

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