“Self-Help” Justice and the Vigilante Victim’s Conundrum
In part, this chapter looks at the issue of individual and collective victimisation, in terms of historical injustices created by imperialism and the extensive consequences of colonial subjugation. Responses to state crimes can result in paramilitarism as perceived in the term “freedom fighting”, to anarchic guerrilla-warfare, as seen in The Lieutenant of Inishmore and A Very Very Very Dark Matter, respectively. Additionally, the actions of a lone wolf vigilante doling out “self-help” justice is at the core of A Behanding in Spokane. Seven Psychopaths looks at various forms of protest justice, from pacifist stalking to self-immolation. Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri considers grief, the depths of rage that transpire when justice is neither done nor seen to be done, but most of all, how the side-lining of civilised protest might transpose measured actions into abhorrent vigilantism.
KeywordsKangaroo courts Vigilante actions Whiteness Race Imperialism Creativity Affirmative action
- BBC News. 1998. “Murder in the Name of War—Mỹ Lai.” 20 July 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/64344.stm.
- Bernardin, Marc. 2018. “Despite Its Awards, Three Billboards Is a Shallow Look at Race in Rural America.” The Guardian, 9 January 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/jan/09/three-billboards-golden-globes-awards-race-rural-america.
- Buchanan, Larry, Ford Fessenden, et al. 2015. “What Happened in Ferguson?” New York Times, 10 August 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/08/13/us/ferguson-missouri-town-under-siege-after-police-shooting.html.
- Cahill, Maria. 2017. “I Once Knew Him as Martin and I Later Depersonalised to McGuinness After My Own Hurt Got in the Way.” Irish Independent, 23 March 2017. http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/news/maria-cahill-i-once-knew-him-as-martin-and-i-later-depersonalised-to-mcguinness-after-my-own-hurt-got-in-the-way-35560426.html.
- CAIN Web Service. http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/chron/ch75.htm.
- Chambers, Robert. 2018. “Martin McDonagh, interviewed by an In Bruges obsessive.” GQ Magazine, 12 January. https://www.gq-magazine.co.uk/article/martin-mcdonagh-interview.
- Dargis, Manohla. 2017. “Review: On Violence and the Pain of Others in ‘Three Billboards’.” New York Times, 8 November. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/08/movies/review-three-billboards-outside-ebbing-missouri-martin-mcdonagh.html?referrer=google_kp.
- Deane, Seamus. 1985. “Civilians and Barbarians: Field Day Pamphlet No. 3. Rpt. in Ireland’s Field Day.” Derry: Field Day Theatre.Google Scholar
- Ferguson, Molly E. 2019. “‘I Retract That Bit…’: Hypermasculinity and Violence in Martin McDonagh’s Films’.” Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 30 (1): 25–43.Google Scholar
- First District Appellate Project. https://sites.google.com/site/fdapwiki/main_page/gangs/substantive-gang-offense.
- French, Philip. 2012. “Review-Seven Psychopaths.” The Guardian, 12 December 2012. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2012/dec/09/seven-psychopaths-review-french-mcdonagh.
- Gilbert, Helen, and Joanne Tompkins. 1996. Post-colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hanly, Conor. 2006. An Introduction to Irish Criminal Law, 2nd ed. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Hytner, Nicholas, 2017. Behind the Scenes at the National Theatre. https://books.google.ie/books?id=GWDJDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT83&lpg=PT83&dq=Nicholas+Hytner+the+shakespeare+room+Martin+mcdonagh&source=bl&ots=LrbCrHVEHU&sig=ACfU3U3-E0Z7joTaAePjiKyCXAnnLIooJQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj8jPnEmdPiAhXzoXEKHf9OBXw4ChDoATAEegQIBxAB#v=onepage&q=Nicholas%20Hytner%20the%20shakespeare%20room%20Martin%20mcdonagh&f=false.
- Jones, Therese, and Les Friedman. 2018. “Grief Observed: Manchester by the Sea and Three Billboards Outside of Ebbing, Missouri.” The Pharos, Spring, 58–61. http://alphaomegaalpha.org/pharos/2018/Spring/2018-2-Medicine.pdf.
- Jordan, Eamonn. 2009. “Martin McDonagh’s The Lieutenant of Inishmore: Commemoration and Dismemberment Through Farce.” Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies 15 (2): 269–286.Google Scholar
- Kermode, Mark, 2018. “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri Review—A Search for Justice Writ Large.” The Guardian, 14 January. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/jan/14/three-billboards-outside-ebbing-missouri-review-frances-mcdormand.
- Madison III Ira. 2017. “Tone-Deaf ‘Three Billboards’ Tries Absolving White People of Racism: And Oscars Season Loves It.” Daily Beast, 14 December. https://www.thedailybeast.com/tone-deaf-three-billboards-tries-absolving-white-people-of-racism-and-oscars-season-loves-it.
- McDonald, Henry. 2008. “The Guardian Profile: Martin McDonagh.” The Guardian, 25 April. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2008/apr/25/theatre.northernireland.
- Morgan, Fergus, 2018. “Review, A Very Very Very Dark Matter.” The Stage, 25 October. https://www.thestage.co.uk/opinion/2018/martin-mcdonagh-a-very-very-very-dark-matter-at-Bridge-theatre-london-review-round-up/?login_to = https%3A%2F%2Fwww.thestage.co.uk%2Faccounts%2Fusers%2Fsign_up.popup.
- Msiska, Mpalive-Hangson. 2018. “The Unfree Free State: An Overview of the History of the Congo.” Program Note, A Very Very Very Dark Matter, Bridge Theatre.Google Scholar
- O’Hagan, Sean. 2001. “The Wild West.” The Guardian, 24 March. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/mar/24/weekend.seanohagan.
- Pinker, Steven. 2011. The Better Angels of Our Nature: A History of Violence and Humanity. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Ramachandran, V.S. 2011. The Tell-Tale Brain: Unlocking the Mystery of Human Nature. London: William Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Read, Alan, and Ben Fitzpatrick. 2006. Criminal Law, 3rd ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
- Sandel, Michael J. 2009. Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
- Sen, Amartya. 2010. The Idea of Justice. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Shuttleworth, Ian. 2018. “Martin McDonagh’s A Very Very Very Dark Matter Is a Magnificent Wild Card of a Show.” Financial Times, 25 October. https://www.ft.com/content/1da05bd0-d83a-11e8-ab8e-6be0dcf18713.
- Sommerlad, Joe. 2018. “Billboards Is Not a Racist Film: What’s Truly ‘Problematic’ Is Twitter’s Appetite for Controversy.” The Independent, 27 January 2018. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/three-buildings-outside-ebbing-missouri-racism-row-twitter-martin-mcdonagh-oscars-frances-mcdormand-a8178861.html.
- Trueman, Matt, 2018. “Martin McDonagh’s ‘A Very Very Very Dark Matter.’” Variety, 25 October 2018. https://variety.com/2018/legit/reviews/very-very-very-dark-matter-review-martin-mcdonagh-1202993998/.
- Utichi, Joe. 2012. “It’s a Mad, Mad World.” The Sunday Times, 9 December 2012, pp. 16–17.Google Scholar
- Verini, James. 2012. “A Terrible Act of Reason: When Did Self-Immolation Become the Paramount Form of Protest.” New Yorker, 16 May 2012. http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/culture/2012/05/history-of-self-immolation.html.
- Warner, Marina. (2018). “By the Virtue of the Dark.” Program Note, A Very Very Very Dark Matter. Bridge Theatre.Google Scholar
- Žižek, Slavoj. 2009. Violence: Six Sideways Reflections. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar