Advertisement

Irrigation: Water Resources, Types and Common Problems in Egypt

  • Ahmed A. AbdelhafezEmail author
  • Sh. M. Metwalley
  • H. H. Abbas
Chapter
  • 69 Downloads
Part of the Springer Water book series (SPWA)

Abstract

Water is the most essential substance for human being and living organisms. Water scarcity in Africa is mainly economic due to the poor management of water resources. The Nile River is the major source of water for different applications, i.e., drinking, industries and agriculture in Egypt; therefore, the development of water resources is inferior, especially under the excessive growth of population. Furthermore, agricultural activities in Egypt consume more than 80% of the available quantity of The Nile water; hence, potential scarcity in water is expected to occur in Egypt; especially, there is a critical argument due to the buildup of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). It is worth mentioning that using the classical irrigation system lead to lose vast amounts of available water. Therefore, attention should be paid to overcome the drought problems of one-third of agricultural soils due to the GERD, which might lead to change in the demographical map in Egypt. Also, efforts should be established to urge the Egyptian farmers to shift their surface irrigation system, which is the common irrigation technology to more advanced technologies, i.e., drip or sprinkler irrigation systems. However, to ensure the success of advanced irrigation systems, the quality of water resources should be taken into consideration. Despite nonconventional water resources are not adequate to compensate for the potential reduction of The Nile water; however, there is an actual need to develop these resources in Egypt.

Keywords

Water resources Nile River Irrigation Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam Water scarcity 

References

  1. 1.
    Collins B, Montgomery DR, Hass AD (2002) Historical changes in the distribution and functions of large wood in Puget Lowland rivers. Can J Fish Aquat Sci (No. 59):66–76Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashour MA, El Attar ST, Rafaat YM, Mohamed MN (2009) Water resources management in Egypt. J Eng Sci Assiut Univ 37(2):269–279Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shahin M (2002) Hydrology and water resources of Africa. Springer, Berlin, pp 286–287Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    El Gamal F, Hesham M, Shalaby AR (2007) Country paper on harmonization and integration of water saving options in Egypt. In: Karam F, Karaa K, Lamaddalena N, Bogliotti C (eds) Harmonization and integration of water saving options. Convention and promotion of water saving policies and guidelines, CIHEAM/EU DG Research, Bari, pp 81–90Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) (2005) Water for the future, national water resources plan 2017, January 2005Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allam MN, Allam GI (2007) Water resources in Egypt: future challenges and opportunities. Water Int 32(2):205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    FAO (2016) AQUASTAT-FAO’s information, Regional report. Egypt, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    UNCOD (United Nations Conference on Desertification) (1977) Desertification: its causes and consequences. Pergamon Press, 448 pGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abu-Zeid M (1992) Water resources assessment for Egypt. Canadian J Dev Stud (Rev can d’études dév) 13(4):173–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abdrabbo MA, Farag A, Abul-Soud M, El-Mola MM, Moursy FS, Sadek II, Hashem FA, Taqi MO, El-Desoky WMS, Shawki HH (2012) Utilization of satellite imagery for drought monitoring in Egypt. World Rural Obs 4(3)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Central Agency of Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) (2016) Statistical of Egyptian water resources. Annually Statistics BookGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wagdy A (2008) Progress in water resources management: Egypt. In: Proceedings of the 1st technical meeting of Muslim Water Researchers Cooperation (MUWAREC), December 2008 (Malaysia), vol 1, p 13Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferrari E, McDonald S, Osman R (2014) Water scarcity and irrigation efficiency in Egypt. In: The 17th annual conference on global economic analysis “New challenges in food policy, trade and economic vulnerability”, Dakar, Senegal, 1–28. https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/resources/download/7118.pdf
  14. 14.
    Ibrahim AIR, Impact of Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and population on future Egypt water needs. Am J Eng Res (AJER) 6(5):160–171Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fazzini M, Bisic C, Billi P (2015) Landscapes and landforms of Ethiopia: the climate of Ethiopia. Springer, Netherlands, pp 65–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8026-1_3
  16. 16.
    Goher AA, Ward FA (2011) Gains from improved irrigation water use efficiency in Egypt. Water Resour Dev, 1–22Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    FAO (2013) Country Programming Framework (CPF) Government of Egypt 2012–2017. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    State Information Service (SIS), Egypt (2017) Annually statistics book. Egypt Fig 2017:172Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) (2018) https://www.mwri.gov.eg/index.php/ministry-7/2017-02-13-15-05-27
  20. 20.
    Abdel Azim RA (1999) Agricultural drainage water reuse in Egypt: current practices and a vision for future development (Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Attia BB (2018) Unconventional water resources and agriculture in Egypt. Part V Securing water resources in Egypt: Securing water resources for Egypt: a major challenge for policy planners, 485–506Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Elbana TA, Bakr N, Elbana M (2018) Unconventional water resources and agriculture in Egypt. Part V Securing water resources in Egypt: Reuse of treated wastewater in Egypt: challenges and opportunities, 429–453Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aboulroos S, Satoh M (2017) Irrigated agriculture in Egypt, past, present and future. Chapter 11: Challenges in exploiting resources—general conclusion, 267–283Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sherif AEEA, Rabie AR, Abdelhafez AA (2017) Accumulation trends of heavy metals in Cupressus sempervirens and Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees grown in treated wastewater irrigated soil. Alex Sci Exch J 38(2):220–230Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fath HES (2018) Unconventional water resources and agriculture in Egypt. Part V Securing water resources in Egypt: Desalination and greenhouses, 455–483Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lamei A, van der Zaag P, von Münch E (2008) Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt. Energy Policy 36(2008):1748–1756.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.12.026
  27. 27.
    Janick J (2002) Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of Horticulture. In: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 582: international symposium on mediterranean horticulture: issues and prospects.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.582.1
  28. 28.
    de Feo G, Angelakis AN, Antoniou GP, El-Gohary F, Haut B, Passchier CW, Zheng XY (2013) Historical and technical notes on aqueducts from prehistoric to medieval times. Water 5(4):1996–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mays LW (2008) A very brief history of hydraulic technology during antiquity. Environ Fluid Mech (Dordr) 8(5–6):471–484.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10652-008-9095-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mirti TH, Wallender WW, Chancellor WJ, Grismer ME (1999) Performance characteristics of the shaduf: a manual water-lifting device. Appl Eng Agric 15(3):225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mays LW (2010) Water technology in ancient Egypt. In Mays L (ed) Ancient water technologies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–65.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8632-7_3
  32. 32.
    Rorres C (2000) The turn of the screw: optimum design of an Archimedes screw. J Hydraul Eng 126(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2000)126:1(72)
  33. 33.
    Koutsoyiannis D, Angelakis AN (2003) Hydrologic and hydraulic science and technology in ancient Greece. In: Stewart BA, Howell T (eds) Encyclopedia of water science. Dekker, New York, pp 415–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1333.5282
  34. 34.
    Evans RG, LaRue J, Stone KC, King BA (2013) Adoption of site-specific variable rate sprinkler irrigation systems. Irrig Sci 31:871–887.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-012-0365-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Howell TA (2001) Enhancing water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture contrib. from the USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Area, Conserv. and Production Res. Lab., Bushland, TX 79012. Mention of trade or commercial names is made for information only and does not imply an endorsement, recommendation, or exclusion by USDA-ARS. Agron J 93:281–289.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2001.932281xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gilley JR (1996) Sprinkler irrigation systems. In: Pereira LS, Feddes RA, Gilley JR, Lesaffre B (eds) Sustainability of irrigated agriculture. NATO ASI Series (Series E: Applied Sciences), vol 312. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 291–307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8700-6_17
  37. 37.
    Deng XP, Shan L, Zhang H, Turner NC (2006) Improving agricultural water use efficiency in arid and semiarid areas of China. Agric Water Manag 80(1):23–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.07.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chaves MM, Santos TP, Souza CR, Ortuño MF, Rodrigues ML, Lopes CM, Maroco JP, Pereira JS (2007) Deficit irrigation in grapevine improves water-use efficiency while controlling vigour and production quality. Ann Appl Biol 150:237–252.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00123.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Caswell MF (1991) Irrigation technology adoption decisions: empirical evidence. In: Dinar A, Zilberman D (eds) The economics and management of water and drainage in agriculture. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 295–312.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4028-1_15
  40. 40.
    USDA (1997) Irrigation guide. National engineering handbook. Part 652. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Available at: https://policy.nrcs.usda.gov/17837.wba
  41. 41.
    Brouwer C (1985) Irrigation water management: irrigation methods. Training manual no 5. FAO—Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/agl/aglw/fwm/Manual5.pdf
  42. 42.
    Verheye WH (2009) Management of agricultural land: climatic and water aspects. In: Verheye WH (ed) Encyclopedia of land use, land cover and soil sciences: land use management and case studies. Volume IV, Encyclopedia of life support systems, Eolss Publishers Co. Ltd., Oxford, UK, pp 61–97Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    El-Nashar WY, Elyamany AH (2017) Value engineering for canal tail irrigation water problem. Ain Shams Eng J.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    El-Kilani RMM, Sugita M (2017) (Chapter 6) Irrigation methods and water requirements in the Nile Delta 125-151. Irrigated agriculture in Egypt, past, present and futureGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khanna M, Malano HM (2006) Modelling of basin irrigation systems: a review. Agric Water Manag 83(1):87–99.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Skogerboe GV, Bandaragoda DJ (1998) Managing irrigation for environmentally sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. Report No. R-77. Towards environmentally sustainable agriculture in the Indus basin irrigation system. Pakistan National Program, International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI), LahoreGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Erie LJ, Dedrick AR (1979) Level-basin irrigation: a method for conserving water and labor. USDA, Farmers’ Bulletn Number 2261, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    USDA (2012) Part 623 Irrigation, national engineering handbook. Chapter 4, Surface irrigation, 1–131. https://directives.sc.egov.usda.gov/opennonwebcontent.aspx?content=32940.wba
  49. 49.
    Norris PK (1934) Cotton production in Egypt. Tech Bull 451:1–42. United State, Department of Agriculture. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    USDA (1983) Section 15: Irrigation-Chapter 5: Furrow irrigation. National engineering handbook. United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/ftpref/wntsc/waterMgt/irrigation/NEH15/ch5.pdf
  51. 51.
    Mailapalli DR, Raghuwanshi NS, Singh R (2009) Sediment transport in furrow irrigation. Irrig Sci 27:449–456.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-009-0160-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dibal JM, Igbadun HE, Ramalan AA, Mudiare OJ (2014) Modelling furrow irrigation-induced erosion on a sandy loam soil in Samaru, Northern Nigeria. International Scholarly Research Notices 2014(8).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/982136
  53. 53.
    Lentz RD, Sojka RE (2000) Applying polymers to irrigation water: evaluating strategies for furrow erosion control. Am Soc Agric Eng 43(6):1561–1568. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.3056
  54. 54.
    Kang S, Shi P, Pan Y, Liang ZS, Hu XT, Zhang J (2000) Soil water distribution, uniformity and water-use efficiency under alternate furrow irrigation in arid areas. Irrig Sci 19:181–190.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002710000019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    El Gamal F (2000) Irrigation in Egypt and role of national water research center. In: Lamaddalena N (ed) Annual meeting of the mediterranean network on collective irrigation systems (CIS_Net). Bari, CIHEAM, pp 33–44Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    USDA (2012) Chapter 4: Surface irrigation. National engineering handbook. Part 623 Irrigation. Available at https://directives.sc.egov.usda.gov/opennonwebcontent.aspx?content=32940.wba
  57. 57.
    Finey S (2016) Sustainable water management in smallholder farming: theory and practice. CABI, Oxfordshire, UK. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780646862.0000Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Walker WR (1989) Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/T0231E/t0231e00.htm#Contents
  59. 59.
    Mateos L (1998) Assessing whole-field uniformity of stationary sprinkler irrigation systems. Assessing whole-field uniformity of stationary sprinkler irrigation systems. Irrig Sci 18:73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002710050047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Evans RG, King BA (2012) Site-specific sprinkler irrigation in a water-limited future. Am Soc Agric Biol Eng 55(2):493–504Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    McLean RK, Sri Ranjan R, Klassen G (2000) Spray evaporation losses from sprinkler irrigation systems. Can Agric Eng 32(1):1–8Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Playán E, Salvador R, Faci JM, Zapata N, Martínez-Cob A, Sánchez I (2005) Day and night wind drift and evaporation losses in sprinkler solid-sets and moving laterals. Agric Water Manag 76(3):139–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.01.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dechmi F, Playán E, Cavero J, Facl JM, Martínez-Cob A (2003) Wind effects on solid set sprinkler irrigation depth and yield of maize (Zea mays). Irrig Sci 22:67–77.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-003-0071-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Martínez-Cob A, Playán E, Zapata N, Cavero J (2008) Contribution of evapotranspiration reduction during sprinkler irrigation to application efficiency. J Irrig Drain Eng 134(6):745–756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2008)134:6(745)
  65. 65.
    Clothier BE, Green SR (1994) Root zone processes and the efficient use of irrigation water. Agric Water Manag 25(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(94)90048-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Colaizzi PD, Barnes EM, Clarke TR, Choi CY, Waller PM, Haberland J, Kostrzewski M (2003) Water stress detection under high frequency sprinkler irrigation with water deficit index. J Irrig Drain Eng 129(1):36–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061(ASCE)0733-9437(2003)129:1(36)
  67. 67.
    Henkel M (2015) 21st century homestead: sustainable agriculture III: agricultural practices. First editionGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brouwer C, Prins K, Heibloem M (1989) Irrigation water management-Training manual no. 4: Irrigation scheduling. FAO Land and Water Development Division. www.fao.org/docrep/t7202e/
  69. 69.
    Bhattarai SP, Midmore DJ, Pendergast L (2008) Yield, water-use efficiencies and root distribution of soybean, chickpea and pumpkin under different subsurface drip irrigation depths and oxygation treatments in vertisols. Irrig Sci 26:439.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-008-0112-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Subramani T, Prabakaran DJ (2015) Uniformity studies and performance of sprinkler and drip irrigation. Int J Appl Innov Eng Manag (IJAIEM) 4(5):284–293Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Capra A, Scicolone B (2007) Recycling of poor quality urban wastewater by drip irrigation systems. J Clean Prod 15(16):1529–1534.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rajak D, Manjunatha MV, Rajkumar GR, Hebbara M, Minhas PS (2006) Comparative effects of drip and furrow irrigation on the yield and water productivity of cotton (L.) in a saline and waterlogged vertisol. Agric Water Manag 83(1):30–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.11.005
  73. 73.
    Dinar A, Yaron D (1990) Influence of quality and scarcity of inputs on the adoption of modern irrigation technologies. Western J. Agr. Econ. 15(2):224–233Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hanson BR, Šimůnek J, Hopmans JW (2006) Evaluation of urea–ammonium–nitrate fertigation with drip irrigation using numerical modeling. Agric Water Manag 86(1):102–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2006.06.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Thompson TL, Doerge TA, Godin RE (2002) Subsurface drip irrigation and fertigation of broccoli. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:186–192.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Singandhupe RB, Rao GGSN, Patil NG, Brahmanand PS (2003) Fertigation studies and irrigation scheduling in drip irrigation system in tomato crop (L.). Eur J Agron 19(2):327–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00077-1
  77. 77.
    Mmolawa K, Or D (2000) Root zone solute dynamics under drip irrigation: a review. Plant Soil 222(1–2):163–190.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004756832038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kang S, Zhang J (2004) Controlled alternate partial root-zone irrigation: its physiological consequences and impact on water use efficiency. J Exp Bot 55(407):2437–2446.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Loveys BR, Dry PR, Stoll M, McCarthy MG (2000) Using plant physiology to improve the water use efficiency of horticultural crops. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 537: III international symposium on irrigation of horticultural crop.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2000.537.19
  80. 80.
    Bielorai H (1982) The effect of partial wetting of the root zone on yield and water use efficiency in a drip-and sprinkler-irrigated mature grapefruit grove. Irrig Sci 3:89–100.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00264852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Crossley PL (2004) Sub-irrigation in wetland agriculture. Agric Hum Values 21(23):191–205.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AHUM.0000029395.84972.5eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zuo Q, Shi J, Li Y, Zhang R (2006) Root length density and water uptake distributions of winter wheat under sub-irrigation. Plant Soil 285:45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-4827-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Machado RM, do Rosário M, Oliveira G, Portas CAM (2003) Tomato root distribution, yield and fruit quality under subsurface drip irrigation. Plant Soil 255:333–341.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026191326168
  84. 84.
    Bhattarai SP, Ninghu Su, David J (2005) Midmore, oxygation unlocks yield potentials of crops in oxygen-limited soil environments. Adv Agron 88:313–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(05)88008-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Goorahoo D, Carstensen G, Zoldoske DF, Norum E, Mazzei A (2002) Using air in sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI) to increase yields in Bell peppers. In: Proceedings of Californial plant and soil conference. Energy and agriculture: now and the future, Feb 5–6, Frenco, CA, pp 22–52Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lamm FR, Trooien TP (2003) Subsurface drip irrigation for corn production: a review of 10 years of research in Kansas. Irrig Sci 22(3–4):195–200.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-003-0085-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Abdelhafez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sh. M. Metwalley
    • 2
  • H. H. Abbas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Soils and Water, Faculty of AgricultureNew Valley UniversityNew ValleyEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Soils and Water, Faculty of Technology and DevelopmentZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Soils and Water, Faculty of AgricultureBenha UniversityBenhaEgypt

Personalised recommendations