Drip Irrigation Technology: Principles, Design, and Evaluation

  • Mostafa FayedEmail author
Part of the Springer Water book series (SPWA)


In Egypt, drip irrigation is widely accepted as the most efficient irrigation technique, as it allows high uniformity of water and nutrient application. During the last 42 years, many advances have taken place in the availability, quality, management, and performance of drip systems in Egypt. Recently, several experimental efforts have been made in Egypt to develop drip irrigation systems and use its latest types to irrigate various crops. This chapter gives a fast version of drip irrigation technology (principles, design, and evaluation). At the beginning, this chapter reviews basic principles and system components. Also, this chapter describes the different types of drip irrigation system and the latest types of drip irrigation systems in Egypt, ultra-low drip irrigation (ULDI) system and mobile drip irrigation system (MDIS) and those concepts, design and characteristics and history of these new types in Egypt. The second section of this chapter describes the preliminary and final design steps for drip irrigation system. The last section contains evaluation parameters of the drip irrigation system. Those parameters are determination of the net depth of each irrigation application, irrigation water requirements, evaluation of emitters by pressure–discharge relationship, manufacturer’s coefficient of variation, emission uniformity, lateral emitter flow variation, and water application efficiency.


Drip irrigation Design Evaluation Mobile drip irrigation system (MDIS) Ultra-low drip irrigation (ULDI) 


  1. 1.
    Al-Amoud AI (1998) Trickle irrigation systems. King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Badr AA (1990) Irrigation engineering and drainage. Cairo University, Egypt (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lamm FR, Ayars JE, Nakayama FS (2007) Microirrigation for crop production: design, operation, and management, vol 13. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    El-Awady MN, Amerhom GW, Zaki MS (1975) Trickle irrigation trial on pea in conditions typical of Qalubia. Ann Agric Sci Moshtohor 4:235–244Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aung KH, Thomas FS (2003) Introduction to micro-irrigation. North Dakota State University, NDSU Extension Service, AE-1243Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    James LG (1988) Principles of farm irrigation systems design. Wiley, New York, pp 260–298Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waller P, Yitayew M (2016) Irrigation and drainage engineering. Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London, pp 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elmesery AEA (1999) A study on design and evaluation of bubbler irrigation system. Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sourell H (2000) Mobile drip irrigation—an alternative to irrigation with nozzles. In: 6th international microirrigation congress (Micro 2000), Cape Town, South Africa, 22–27 Oct 2000. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), pp 1–9Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lamm F (2003) Drip irrigation laterals on center pivot irrigation. Irrigation at K-State Research and Extension.
  11. 11.
    Derbala AA (2003) Development and evaluation of mobile drip irrigation with center pivot irrigation machines. Ph.D. thesis, Landbauforschung Völkenrode, FAL Agricultural Research, Special Issue 250.
  12. 12.
    Rawlins SL, Hoffman GW, Merrill SD (1974) Traveling trickle system. In: Proceedings of the international drip irrigation congress, 2nd, San Diego, pp 184–187 [cited from Phene CJ et al (1985)]Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Phene CJ, Howell TA, Sikorski MD (1985) A traveling trickle irrigation system. Adv Irrig 3:1–49 (online).
  14. 14.
    Hezarjaribi A (2008) Site-specific irrigation: improvement of application map and a dynamic steering of modified centre pivot irrigation system. Doctoral dissertation, Universitätsbibliothek Giessen.
  15. 15.
    Fayed MH (2016) Design and evaluation of mobile drip irrigation system. Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lubars P, Richard M (2008) Minute or ultra-low micro-irrigation.
  17. 17.
    Koenig E (1997) Methods of micro-irrigation with very small discharges and particularly low application rates. Water Irrig 365:32–38 [cited from Assouline S (2002), in Hebrew]Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Assouline S, Cohen S, Meerbach D, Harodi T, Rosner M (2002) Microdrip irrigation of field crops: effect on yield, water uptake, and drainage in sweet corn. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:228–235Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Assouline S (2002) The effects of microdrip and conventional drip irrigation on water distribution and uptake. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1630–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fayed MH (2012) A study on some factors affecting ultra low drip irrigation. MS thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lamm F (2015) SDI in the Great Plains. Drawings of microirrigation component. K-State Research and Extension.
  22. 22.
    Keller J, Karmeli D (1975) Trickle irrigation design (No. 04; TC805, K3). Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corporation, Glendora, CAGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Savva AP, Frenken K (2002) Irrigation manual: planning, development, monitoring and evaluation of irrigated agriculture with farmer participation, vol IV. Module 9: localized irrigation: planning, design, operation and maintenance. FAO.
  24. 24.
    Savva AP, Frenken K (2002) Irrigation manual: crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling, vol ii. Module 4. FAO.
  25. 25.
    Keller J, Karmeli D (1974) Trickle irrigation design parameters. Trans ASAE 17(4):678–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ASAE Standard (1994) Design and installation of microirrigation systems. EP405.1, pp 724–727Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Merriam JL, Keller J (1978) Farm irrigation system evaluation: a guide for management, 3rd edn. Utah State University, Logan, UT, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu IP, Gitlin HM (1974) Drip irrigation design based on uniformity. Trans ASAE 17:429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sne M (2009) Micro irrigation: technology and application, 2nd edn. CINADCO, pp 117–122.
  30. 30.
    Dasberg S, Or D (1999) Drip irrigation (applied agriculture), 1st edn. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 100–126. ISSN 1433-7576Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water and Irrigation Systems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural EngineeringAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations