Authorizing the Use of Force, 1989–1991
The end of the Cold War meant the world order had changed irrevocably—for better or worse. Striding confidently onto the international stage, George H. W. Bush, with help from his national security advisers, demonstrated a new sense of internationalism in the absence of the Soviet Union by corralling international support for sanctions against the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Through the careful application of coercive diplomacy, both toward Iraq and toward other members of the United Nations, Bush gained the United Nations’ authorization for a military intervention in Kuwait to force out the entrenched Iraqi occupation. Saddam Hussein, through the annexation of Kuwait, demonstrated to Bush that Iraqi capabilities were evidence of Iraqi intentions.