Overview of Infectious Diseases of Concern to Dental Practitioners: Blood-Borne Pathogens
Blood-borne pathogens are of particular concern to the healthcare provider as they can be easily transmitted in the healthcare setting. This can happen due to improper disinfection of instruments and surfaces, or through parenteral exposure. With the proper use of standard precautions, including proper technique handling sharps, this can be avoided. Of particular concern is exposure to HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B, for which there is a vaccine. All healthcare workers deemed at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens should receive this vaccination. These diseases are manageable with proper detection and treatment. HIV is not cureable but can be controlled to a level that a patient can expect to live a full, healthy life. Hepatitis C and B can spontaneously resolve after an acute infection, but most people develop a chronic infection that if left untreated can lead to severe liver damage and even death. HIV and hepatitis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developing countries.
KeywordsBlood-borne pathogens Standard precautions Surface disinfection HIV Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Parenteral Vaccine
- 1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV/Aids; HIV basics. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html. Updated 24 Apr 2019.
- 2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV and AIDS timeline. https://npin.cdc.gov/pages/hiv-and-aids-timeline#1980. Updated 17 Jan 2017
- 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Health, United States. 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus16.pdf#034. May 2017.
- 4.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Murphy, SL, et al. National vital statistics reports. 2017;66:6. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_06.pdf.
- 5.World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS, prevent HIV, test and treat all – WHO support for country impact. progress report 2016. https://www.who.int/hiv/pub/progressreports/2016-progress-report/en/.
- 6.U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. HIV.gov. Symptoms of HIV. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/about-hiv-and-aids/how-is-hiv-transmitted. Updated 15 May 2017.
- 7.U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. HIV.gov. How is HIV Transmitted? https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/about-hiv-and-aids/symptoms-of-hiv. Updated 15 May 2017.
- 9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV treatment overview. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/staying-in-hiv-care/hiv-treatment/hiv-treatment-overview. Updated 29 Mar 2019.
- 10.American Dental Association. Oral health topics, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). https://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/hiv. Updated 24 Mar 2019.
- 11.Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA. Elsevier Mosby. In: Medical microbiology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA; 2005.Google Scholar
- 12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Viral hepatitis, hepatitis B questions and answers for health professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/hbvfaq.htm#treatment. Updated 31 Oct 2018
- 13.Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2007;45(2):507–39. https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.21513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.American Dental Association. Oral health topics, hepatitis viruses. https://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/hepatitis-viruses. Updated 26 Mar 2019.
- 16.Zeisel MB, Felmlee DJ, Baumert TF. Hepatitis C virus entry. In: Bartenschlager R, editor. Hepatitis C virus: from molecular virology to antiviral therapy. Current topics in microbiology and immunology, vol. 369. Berlin: Springer; 2013. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-27340-7_4.Google Scholar
- 17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Viral hepatitis, hepatitis C information. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/. Updated 31 May 2015.
- 18.Lagging M, et al. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection for adults and children: updated Swedish consensus guidelines 2017. Infect Dis. 50(8):569–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2018.144528.
- 20.Mayo Clinic. Hepatitis C, diagnosis. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hepatitis-c/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354284. Updated 6 Mar 2018.
- 21.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Viral hepatitis, hepatitis C questions and answers for health professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/hcvfaq.htm#section4. Updated 9 Apr 2019.