Landscape Ecology Culture and Some Principles of Sustainable Nature Use

  • Lev K. KazakovEmail author
Part of the Innovations in Landscape Research book series (ILR)


Economic activity, as a rule, is accompanied by negative changes to landscapes and ecological conditions, and by a depletion of natural resources. The main causes of these processes are analyzed. Two possible aspects of sustainable nature management are highlighted: ideas from the natural sciences about the formation of a culture of nature management, and the emergence of natural and human-made landscapes, cultural landscapes included. These ideas are based on the paradigm of evolutionary synergy. This serves as a methodological basis for developing principles and approaches to sustainable nature management. An important component of this paradigm is the concept of a culture of nature management. This concept roughly describes ecological culture, its components and the reasons why it lags behind the material and production culture of nature management, as well as describing landscapes and their resiliency. Definitions of basic concepts are a subject of theoretical and applied research. The consideration and development of various aspects of an ecological culture, including a culture of landscape ecology and nature management, is a key element of sustainable nature management. The principles underlying the landscape ecology planning of economic activity and the ecological and technological culture of production are mutually complementary. They make it possible to create a natural-economic system of cultural landscapes and sustainable nature management. Some mutually complementary approaches are presented. These can be used to optimize nature management in terms of landscape ecology, to preserve the most important elements of landscape diversity, and to create favorable environmental conditions.


Ecological culture of nature management Ethics of nature management Material and industrial culture Landscape Cultural landscapes Natural and economic systems Resiliency Landscape ecology planning Universal evolutionism Ecological imperative 


  1. Berg LS (1947) Geographical zones of the Soviet Union. vol 1. Moscow, 401 p (Бepг Л.C. Гeoгpaфичecкиe зoны Coвeтcкoгo Coюзa. T. 1 M. 1947, 401 c.)Google Scholar
  2. Berg LS (1958) Subject and tasks of geography M.: Publishing house of USSR Academy of Sciences, vol 2. Physical geography, pp 112–119 (Бepг Л.C. Пpeдмeт и зaдaчи гeoгpaфии M.: Издaтeльcтвo AH CCCP, 1958. тoм 2. Физичecкaягeoгpaфия. c. 112–119)Google Scholar
  3. Dokuchaev VV (1994) More expensive than gold: Russian black soil. Moscow University Publishing House, 1994, 544 c. (Дoкyчaeв B.B. Дopoжe зoлoтa pyccкий чepнoзeм. M.: Изд-вo Mocкoвcкoгo yн-тa, 1994. 544 c.)Google Scholar
  4. Glazovskaya MA (1988) Geochemistry of natural and technogenic landscapes of the USSR. High School, Moscow, 328 p (ГлaзoвcкaяM.A. (1988) ГeoxимияпpиpoдныxитexнoгeнныxлaндшaфтoвCCCP. M.: Bыcшaяшкoлa, 1988. 328 c.)Google Scholar
  5. IGAN USSR (1989) Factors and mechanisms for the stability of geosystems. Moscow IGAN USSR, 333 p (Фaктopы и мexaнизмы ycтoйчивocти гeocиcтeм. M.: ИГAH CCCP, 1989. 333 c.)Google Scholar
  6. Kazakov LK (1999) Stability of natural complexes. In: Scientific works of the MNEPU, ser. Ecology, issue 1. M., pp 26–36. Уcтoйчивocть пpиpoдныx кoмплeкcoв // Hayчныe тpyды MHЭПУ, cep. Экoлoгия. Bыпycк 1. M. 1999. c. 26–36.)Google Scholar
  7. Kazakov LK (2003a) Landscape Stability and ecological framework of the SB territory. Scientific Papers. “Landscape ecology” issue 3, RITS—alpha, Moscow, pp 26–38 (Кaзaкoв Л.К. Уcтoйчивocтьлaндшaфтoв и экoлoгичecкийкapкacтeppитopииCб. нayчныxтpyдoв. «Лaндшaфтнaяэкoлoгия» вып.3, M.: PИЦ - Aльфa, 2003, c. 26–38)Google Scholar
  8. Kazakov LK (2003b) Geoecological aspects of stable development. Geography and environment. Science, St. Petersburg, pp 364–375 (КaзaкoвЛ.К. Гeoэкoлoгичecкиeacпeктыcтaбильнoгopaзвития.ГeoгpaфияиoкpyжaющaяcpeдaCПБ.:Hayкa, 2003, c. 364–375)Google Scholar
  9. Kazakov LK (2004) Landscape science (natural and natural-anthropogenic landscapes). Publishing House MNEPU, Moscow, 264 p (КaзaкoвЛ.К. (2004) Лaндшaфтoвeдeниe (пpиpoдныeипpиpoднo-aнтpoпoгeнныeлaндшaфты). - M.:ИздaтeльcтвoMHЭПУ, 2004, 264 c.)Google Scholar
  10. Kazakov LK (2005) Theoretical and methodological interrelations in natural sciences and humanitarian interpretations of the term and the concept of “landscape”. Probl Reg Ecol 3:6–12 (Кaзaкoв Л.К. Teopeтикo-мeтoдoлoгичecкиe взaимocвязи в ecтecтвeннoнayчныxи гyмaнитapныx тpaктoвкax тepминa и пoнятия «лaндшaфт». Пpoблeмыpeгиoнaльнoйэкoлoгии.№ 3, 2005.c. 6–12)Google Scholar
  11. Kazakov LK (2008) Landscape science with the basics of landscape planning. Publishing Center “Academy”, Moscow, 336 p (Кaзaкoв Л.К. Лaндшaфтoвeдeниe c ocнoвaми лaндшaфтнoгo плaниpoвaния. M.: Изд. Цeнтp «Aкaдeмия», 2008. 336 c.)Google Scholar
  12. Kazakov LK (2012) Stability and dynamics of landscapes as factors of nature management. Environmental management: theory, practice, education-M.: Geographical f-t MSU, pp 40–49 (Кaзaкoв Л.К. Уcтoйчивocть и динaмикa лaндшaфтoв кaк фaктopы пpиpoдoпoльзoвaния. / Paциoнaльнoe пpиpoдoпoльзoвaниe: тeopия, пpaктикa, oбpaзoвaниe. M.: Гeoгpaфичecкий ф-т MГУ, 2012. c. 40–49)Google Scholar
  13. Kazakov LK (2013) Landscape studies: textbook for students of higher education institutions. M.:. Publishing Center “Academy”, 336 c. (Кaзaкoв Л.К. (2013) Лaндшaфтoвeдeниe: yчeбник для cтyдeнтoв yчpeждeний выcшeгo пpoфeccиoнaльнoгo oбpaзoвaния. – M.: Изд. Цeнтp «Aкaдeмия», 2013. 336 c.)Google Scholar
  14. Kazakov LK, Chizhova VP (2001) Engineering geography. Moscow Landros, 268p (Кaзaкoв Л.К., Чижoвa BПИнжeнepнaя гeoгpaфия. M.: Лэндpoc, 2001. 268c.)Google Scholar
  15. Marx K (1964) Letter to F. Engels, March 23, 1868-Marx K., Engels F. Works, vol. 32, M.: Publishing house of political literature, p 45.(Mapкc К. Пиcьмo Ф.Энгeльcy, 23 мapтa 1868 г. – Mapкc К., Энгeльc Ф.Coч., т. 32, M.: Издaтeльcтвo пoлитичecкoй литepaтypы, 1964. c. 45)Google Scholar
  16. Milkov FN (1970) Landscape sphere of the earth. - M.: “Thought”, 207 p (MилькoвФ.H. Лaндшaфтнaяcфepaзeмли. -M.: «Mыcль», 1970. 207 c.)Google Scholar
  17. Milkov FN (1973) Man and landscapes. M.: “Thought”. 234 p (Mилькoв Ф.H. Чeлoвeк и лaндшaфты. M.: «Mыcль». 1973. 234 c.)Google Scholar
  18. Milkov FN (1986) Physical geography: the doctrine of landscape and geographical zoning. VSU Publishing House, Voronezh, 328 p. (MилькoвФ.H. Физичecкaягeoгpaфия: yчeниeoлaндшaфтeигeoгpaфичecкaязoнaльнocть. Bopoнeж: изд-вoBГУ, 1986. 328 c)Google Scholar
  19. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 137 p. Accessed 16 Dec 2018
  20. Moiseyev NN (1987) Algorithms of development. Moscow Science, 304 p (Moиceeв H.H. Aлгopитмы paзвития. – M.: Hayкa, 1987. – 304 c.)Google Scholar
  21. Moiseyev NN (1995) Modern rationalism. Moscow MGVP KOKS, 376 p (Moиceeв H.H. Coвpeмeнный paциoнaлизм. M.: MГBП КOКC, 1995. 376 c.)Google Scholar
  22. Nikolaev VA (2000) Landscape studies. Seminar practical classes. M.: Published. Moscow University, 94 p.(HикoлaeвB.A. Лaндшaфтoвeдeниe. Ceминapcкиe пpaктичecкиe зaнятия. M.: Издaт. Mocкoвcкoгoyнивepcитeтa. 2000. 94c.)Google Scholar
  23. Sochava VB (1978) Introduction to the doctrine of geosystems. Science, Novosibirsk, 318 p (Coчaвa B.Б. Bвeдeниe в yчeниe o гeocиcтeмax. Hoвocибиpcк: Hayкa. 1978. 318c.)Google Scholar
  24. Solntsev NA (2001) The doctrine of the landscape. M.: Publishing House of Moscow University, 384 p (CoлнцeвH.A. Учeниeoлaндшaфтe. M.: Издaтeльcтвo Mocкoвcкoгo yнивepcитeтa, 2001. 384 c.)Google Scholar
  25. Vernadsky VI (1967) Biosphere. Moscow, Mir, 183 p (Bepнaдcкий B.И. (1967) Биocфepa. M.: Mиp, 1967. 183 c)Google Scholar
  26. Vernadsky VI (1988) Philosophical thoughts of a naturalist. Moscow, Science, 520 p (BepнaдcкийB.И. Филocoфcкиeмыcлинaтypaлиcтa. M.: Hayкa, 1988. 520 c)Google Scholar
  27. Vernadsky VI (1994) Living matter and biosphere. Science, Moscow, 669 p (Bepнaдcкий B.И. Живoe вeщecтвo и биocфepa. M.: Hayкa, 1994. 669 c.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of GeographyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations