Planning Tools for the Protection of the Natural and Cultural Heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean Area

  • Maria Gabriella TrovatoEmail author
  • Dana Ali
Part of the Innovations in Landscape Research book series (ILR)


Rapid changes are happening in the Eastern Mediterranean region under the pressure of urban sprawl, rural abandonment and adoption of different agricultural technics, tourism intensification, and movement of displaced populations between the Mediterranean shores. In view of the risks to cultural and natural heritage, the American University of Beirut (AUB) team at the Landscape department developed a Landscape Risk Assessment Model (RA), and Landscape Decision Support System (LDSS) to take into account the protection of landscapes of particular interest, as well as the rational planning of all the landscapes with special emphasis on the use of natural resources. The paper reports the results of the research conducted during the ENPI EU project MEDSCAPES in developing landscape planning tools for the protection of the natural and cultural heritage in the region. The assessment was applied in the study area of each partner country of the ENPI project, allowing for a better understanding of the implications in land use and conservation decision making.


Landscape Risk Assessment Landscape Decision Support System Landscape planning tools 



The research was conducted with the financial support of the cross-border cooperation ‘Mediterranean Sea Basin Programme—ENPI’ of the European Union. My gratitude goes to my University, AUB, and my department in particular, LDEM, for the support and help throughout the duration of the project. A special thanks to all the governmental institutions that directly and indirectly contributed to the smooth development of the research by giving access to resources and data necessary to run the project.

A special thanks goes to Jessica Nicolas and Ammar El Halabi for the work produced in analyzing the data and performing the LRA and LDSS experiments.


  1. Arciniegas G, Janssen R (2012) Spatial decision support for collaborative land use planning workshops. Landsc Urban Plan 107:332–342 (2012). ISSN: 0169-2046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ARMONIA Project (2005) Report on the European scenario of technological and scientific standards reached in spatial planning versus natural risk management. WP1: State of the art of spatial planning Deliverable 1.1 Armonia Project. Accessed Mar 19, 2019
  3. Bacon CM (2011) Disaster risk and sustainable development. In: Wisner B, Gaillard JC, Kelman I (eds) The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk reduction. Routledge London, UK. ISBN: 978-0-415-59065-5 (Print)Google Scholar
  4. Collignon P (2009) Situation et défis du monde rural—Le patrimoine et le paysage au cœur des enjeux du développement territorial durable [Status and challenges of the rural world-heritage and landscape as core goals of sustainable territorial development]. Aménage Territ Eur Paysage 88:99–103Google Scholar
  5. Dransch D, Etter J, Walz, U (2005) Maps for natural risk management. In: Proceedings of the 22nd international cartographic conference, La Coruna, Spain, 9–16 July 2005. Accessed Mar 19, 2019
  6. ELC (2000) European Landscape Convention (2000)., Accessed March 19, 2019
  7. Greiving S, Fleischhauer M, Lückenkötter J (2006) A Methodology for an integrated risk assessment of spatially relevant hazards. J Environ Plan Manage 49(1):1–19. Scholar
  8. La Rosa D, Martinico F (2013) Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily. J Environ Manage 127(2013):S156–S167. Scholar
  9. Martinico F, La Rosa D (2009) The use of GIS in landscape protection plan in Sicily. In: Krek A, Rumor M, Zlatanova S, Fendel E (eds) Urban and regional data management (UDMS) Annual 2009. Taylor & Francis: London, UK. ISBN: 978-0-415-55642-2Google Scholar
  10. Menoni S, Margottini C (2011) Foreword. In: Menoni S, Margottini C (eds) Inside risk: a strategy for sustainable risk mitigation. Springer, Milan, Italy. ISBN: 978-88-470-1842-6Google Scholar
  11. Petrisor A-I (2014) GIS-Based methodology for the analysis of regional landscapes and their changes based on land cover and use: a planning perspective aimed at conserving the natural heritage. In: Cracium C, Bostenaru-Dan M (eds) Planning and designing sustainable and resilient landscapes (Chap. 10). Springer, Amsterdam, Netherlans, Earth Sciences & Geography—Geography Series. ISBN 978-94-017-8535-8Google Scholar
  12. Rauscher HM (1999) Ecosystem management decision support for Federal forest in the United States: a review. For Ecol Manag 114(s 2-3):173–197 Scholar
  13. Walker G, Deeming H, Margottini C, Menoni S (2011) Introduction to sustainable risk mitigation for a more resilient Europe. In: Menoni S, Margottini C (eds) Inside risk: a strategy for sustainable risk mitigation. Springer, Milan, Italy. ISBN: 978-88-470-1842-6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Landscape Design and Ecosystem Management, Faculty of Agricultural and Food SciencesAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations