Belligerence and Distress as Emotions in Democratic Education

  • Nuraan DavidsEmail author
  • Yusef Waghid


In this chapter, we show how democratic education encourages respect, mutual engagement and the recognition of a plurality of views. Inasmuch as reasonable persons engage deliberatively with one another, they invariably draw on their emotions as they endeavour to reason together. Yet, when reasonable people engage openly and freely they take responsibility for one another’s views. Even when they are provoked by the emotions of distress and belligerence, they are responsible enough to make sure to restrain their hostility towards one another that potentially leads to open conflict. Rather, their belligerence and distress allow them to speak their minds without being silenced even when their views are provocative and dissenting. Through speech participants disturb doubts about the claims being proffered and collectively strive together to achieve conciliation when rival positions are taken into perspective.


Respect Mutual engagement Recognition Plurality Reasonableness Dissent 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education Policy StudiesStellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationStellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa

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