Feasibility Analysis for Pulse-Based Synchronization in a Dual Chamber Leadless Pacemaker System
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Leadless pacemakers are a new generation of pacemakers, providing therapy for patients with bradyarrhythmias. Studies are performed to evaluate the feasibility of using leadless pacemaker in multiple locations inside the heart. In such a scenario, it is important for leadless pacemakers to be synchronized in order to maintain atrial and ventricular coordination. In addition, the focus is also to study the energy consumed for synchronization operation in leadless pacemaker system in an in-body environment. In this chapter, a strategy is proposed for implementing an existing pacing mode between the leadless pacemakers using wireless synchronization. The technique considered is to transmit a radio frequency pulse from leadless pacemaker at right atrium to right ventricle on every heartbeat. For a given target error probability, transmit power of the pulse needed for reliable synchronization is evaluated. Energy consumed for synchronization operation vs distance between implanted leadless pacemakers is also investigated. Results show that for an error probability ≈ 10−3 and distance between leadless pacemakers = 9 cm, the minimum required transmit power is 75 μW per pulse. The minimum energy consumed for successful pulse transmission and reception in leadless pacemakers for a life cycle of 10 years is 15.4 μAh. The battery rating for existing leadless pacemaker is 220 mAh; since the energy consumed for synchronization operation is five orders less in magnitude than the battery energy, the system implementation is feasible.
KeywordsImplant synchronization Leadless pacemakers synchronization In-body wireless synchronization Longevity estimation Body area networking Signal processing
This work is funded by the European Union’s H2020: MSCA: ITN program for the “Wireless In-body Environment Communication—WiBEC” project under the grant agreement no. 675353. I would also like to thank the people in the department of Electronic System for valuable discussions.
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