Composting Practices for the Remediation of Matrices Contaminated by Recalcitrant Organic Pollutants

  • Ondřej LhotskýEmail author
  • Stefano Covino
  • Tomáš Cajthaml
Part of the Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future book series (AESE)


Composting has been known since ancient times. Nowadays this process is widely used for stabilization of biodegradable wastes and preparation of organic fertilizers. Due to low substrate selectivity and high biodiversity, the compost-inhabiting microbial consortia are capable of breaking down organic matter of different nature including those artificial chemical compounds that are persistent in the natural environment. Therefore, composting practices can be utilized for ex situ remediation of different matrices contaminated with recalcitrant organic pollutants. Composting and compost addition are a sustainable and effective bioremediation option, especially for the treatment of soil contaminated with mixtures of hydrocarbons (fuels, lubricating oils, creosote, etc.), explosives, phenols, some pesticides, and emerging pollutants. In order to understand the bioremediation technology based on composting processes, it is necessary to introduce the general principles of composting organic wastes. Therefore, this chapter consists of two parts. The first part concerns the general principles of composting organic wastes including information on the composting process, stages of composting, factors affecting the composting process, and composting systems. The second part focuses on the actual bioremediation of contaminated solid wastes. Factors and mechanisms affecting the co-composting process are discussed, and a review of the co-composting applications for different contaminant groups is also provided.


Composting practices POPs Bioremediation 


  1. Adam IKU, Rein A, Miltner A, Fulgêncio ACD, Trapp S, Kästner M (2014) Experimental results and integrated modeling of bacterial growth on an insoluble hydrophobic substrate (Phenanthrene). Environ Sci Technol 48(15):8717–8726. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam IKU, Miltner A, Kästner M (2015) Degradation of 13C-labeled pyrene in soil-compost mixtures and fertilized soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99(22):9813–9824. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahlawat OP, Gupta P, Kumar S, Sharma DK, Ahlawat K (2010) Bioremediation of fungicides by spent mushroom substrate and its associated microflora. Indian J Microbiol 50(4):390–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad R, Jilani G, Arshad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid A (2007) Bio-conversion of organic wastes for their recycling in agriculture: an overview of perspectives and prospects. Ann Microbiol 57(4):471–479. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alburquerque JA, Gonzálvez J, Tortosa G, Baddi GA, Cegarra J (2009) Evaluation of “alperujo” composting based on organic matter degradation, humification and compost quality. Biodegradation 20(2):257–270. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anastasi A, Varese GC, Filipello Marchisio V (2005) Isolation and identification of fungal communities in compost and vermicompost. Mycologia 97(1):33–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antizar-Ladislao B (2010) Bioremediation: working with Bacteria. Elements 6(6):389–394. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Antizar-Ladislao B, Lopez-Real J, Beck A (2004) Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated waste using composting approaches. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 34(3):249–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Antizar-Ladislao B, Lopez-Real J, Beck AJ (2005) Laboratory studies of the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by in-vessel composting. Waste Manag 25(3):281–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Antizar-Ladislao B, Lopez-Real J, Beck AJ (2006) Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged coal tar contaminated soil under in-vessel composting conditions. Environ Pollut 141(3):459–468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bao Y, Zhou Q, Guan L, Wang Y (2009) Depletion of chlortetracycline during composting of aged and spiked manures. Waste Manag 29(4):1416–1423. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benoit P, Barriuso E, Calvet R (1998) Biosorption characterization of herbicides, 2,4-D and atrazine, and two chlorophenols on fungal mycelium. Chemosphere 37(7):1271–1282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosma TNP, Middeldorp PJM, Schraa G, Zehnder AJB (1997) Mass transfer limitation of biotransformation: quantifying bioavailability. Environ Sci Technol 31(1):248–252. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Briones A (2014) Commentary on De Gannes et al. (2013): “Insights into fungal communities in composts revealed by 454-pyrosequencing: implications for human health and safety”. Front Microbiol 5:372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown ME, Chang MCY (2014) Exploring bacterial lignin degradation. Curr Opin Chem Biol 19:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buyuksonmez F, Sekeroglu S (2005) Presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in biosolids and their degradation during composting. J Residuals Sci Technol 2:31–40Google Scholar
  17. Büyüksönmez F, Rynk R, Hess TF, Bechinski E (1999) Occurrence, degradation and fate of pesticides during composting. Part I: Composting, pesticides, and pesticide degradation. Compost Sci Util 7(4):66–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cerniglia CE (1984) Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Adv Appl Microbiol 30:31–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cerniglia CE (1992) Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Rosenberg E (ed) Microorganisms to combat pollution. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 227–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cerniglia CE, Sutherland JB (2010) Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Fungi. In: Timmis KN (ed) Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 2079–2110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chefetz B, Xing B (2009) Relative role of aliphatic and aromatic moieties as sorption domains for organic compounds: a review. Environ Sci Technol 43(6):1680–1688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen M, Xu P, Zeng G, Yang C, Huang D, Zhang J (2015) Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: applications, microbes and future research needs. Biotechnol Adv 33(6):745–755. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Covino S, Fabianová T, Křesinová Z, Čvančarová M, Burianová E, Filipová A, Vořísková J, Baldrian P, Cajthaml T (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and microbial community shifts during co-composting of creosote-treated wood. J Hazard Mater 301:17–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Gannes V, Eudoxie G, Hickey WJ (2013a) Insights into fungal communities in composts revealed by 454-pyrosequencing: implications for human health and safety. Front Microbiol 4:164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Gannes V, Eudoxie G, Hickey WJ (2013b) Prokaryotic successions and diversity in composts as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing. Bioresour Technol 133:573–580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dees PM, Ghiorse WC (2001) Microbial diversity in hot synthetic compost as revealed by PCR-amplified rRNA sequences from cultivated isolates and extracted DNA. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 35(2):207–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doyle RC, Isbister JD, Anspach GL, Kitchens JF (1986) Composting explosives/organics contaminated soilsGoogle Scholar
  28. Eberhardt C, Grathwohl P (2002) Time scales of organic contaminant dissolution from complex source zones: coal tar pools vs. blobs. J Contam Hydrol 59(1–2):45–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eggen T (1999) Application of fungal substrate from commercial mushroom production — Pleuorotus ostreatus — for bioremediation of creosote contaminated soil. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 44(2–3):117–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fitzpatrick GE, Worden EC, Vendrame WA (2005) Historical development of composting technology during the 20th century. HortTechnology 15(1):48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fountoulakis MS, Terzakis S, Georgaki E, Drakopoulou S, Sabathianakis I, Kouzoulakis M, Manios T (2009) Oil refinery sludge and green waste simulated windrow composting. Biodegradation 20(2):177–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA (2008) Solid waste management by composting: state of the art. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 38(5):311–400. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gandolfi I, Sicolo M, Franzetti A, Fontanarosa E, Santagostino A, Bestetti G (2010) Influence of compost amendment on microbial community and ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Bioresour Technol 101(2):568–575. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. García-Delgado C, D’Annibale A, Pesciaroli L, Yunta F, Crognale S, Petruccioli M, Eymar E (2015) Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation. Sci Total Environ 508:20–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ghoshal S, Ramaswami A, Luthy RG (1996) Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar and heptamethylnonane in mixed batch systems. Environ Sci Technol 30(4):1282–1291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gibson RW, Wang M-J, Padgett E, Lopez-Real JM, Beck AJ (2007) Impact of drying and composting procedures on the concentrations of 4-nonylphenols, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and polychlorinated biphenyls in anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Chemosphere 68(7):1352–1358. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haderlein A, Legros R, Ramsay B (2001) Enhancing pyrene mineralization in contaminated soil by the addition of humic acids or composted contaminated soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56(3–4):555–559. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harms H, Zehnder AJB (1994) Influence of substrate diffusion on degradation of dibenzofuran and 3-chlorodibenzofuran by attached and suspended bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 60(8):2736–2745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harms H, Schlosser D, Wick LY (2011) Untapped potential: exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:177–192. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heitkamp MA, Cerniglia CE (1989) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by a Mycobacterium sp. in microcosms containing sediment and water from a pristine ecosystem. Appl Environ Microbiol 55(8):1968–1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hellmann B, Zelles L, Palojärvi A, Bai Q (1997) Emission of climate-relevant trace gases and succession of microbial communities during open-windrow composting. Appl Environ Microbiol 63(3):1011–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hernández T, Garcia E, García C (2015) A strategy for marginal semiarid degraded soil restoration: A sole addition of compost at a high rate. A five-year field experiment. Soil Biol Biochem 89:61–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hofrichter M (2002) Review: lignin conversion by manganese peroxidase (MnP). Enzym Microb Technol 30(4):454–466. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenkins T, Vogel C (2014) Department of defense best management practices for munitions constituents on operational rangesGoogle Scholar
  45. Joo H-S, Shoda M, Phae C-G (2007) Degradation of diesel oil in soil using a food waste composting process. Biodegradation 18:597–605. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Juhasz AL, Naidu R (2000) Bioremediation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review of the microbial degradation of benzo[a]pyrene. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 45(1–2):57–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karnchanawong S, Nissaikla S (2014) Effects of microbial inoculation on composting of household organic waste using passive aeration bin. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 3(4):113–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kästner M (2000) Degradation of aromatic and polyaromatic compounds. In: Rehm H-J, Reed G (eds) Biotechnology, vol 11b Environmental processes II. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, pp 211–239. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kästner M, Miltner A (2016) Application of compost for effective bioremediation of organic contaminants and pollutants in soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100(8):3433–3449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirchmann H, Ewnetu W (1998) Biodegradation of petroleum-based oil wastes through composting. Biodegradation 9(2):151–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kües U (2015) Fungal enzymes for environmental management. Curr Opin Biotechnol 33:268–278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Laine MM, Ahtiainen J, Wågman N, Öberg LG, Jørgensen KS (1997) Fate and toxicity of chlorophenols, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans during composting of contaminated sawmill soil. Environ Sci Technol 31(11):3244–3250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee LS, Rao PSC, Okuda I (1992) Equilibrium partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons form coal tar into water. Environ Sci Technol 26(11):2110–2115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li X, Lin X, Zhang J, Wu Y, Yin R, Feng Y, Wang Y (2010) Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by crude extracts from spent mushroom substrate and its possible mechanisms. Curr Microbiol 60(5):336–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loick N, Hobbs PJ, Hale MDC, Jones DL (2009) Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 39(4):271–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu X-Y, Zhang T, Fang HH-P (2011) Bacteria-mediated PAH degradation in soil and sediment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89(5):1357–1371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Luthy RG, Ramaswami A, Ghoshal S, Merkel W (1993) Interfacial films in coal tar nonaqueous-phase liquid–water systems. Environ Sci Technol 27(13):2914–2918. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Luthy RG, Dzombak DA, Peters CA, Roy SB, Ramaswami A, Nakles DV, Nott BR (1994) Remediating tar-contaminated soils at manufactured gas plant sites. Environ Sci Technol 28(6):266A–276A. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manderson GJ (2009) Composting agricultural and industrial waste. Biotechnology VIII:41–44Google Scholar
  60. Marchal G, Smith KEC, Rein A, Winding A, Trapp S, Karlson UG (2013a) Comparing the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of phenanthrene sorbed to activated carbon, biochar and compost. Chemosphere 90(6):1767–1778. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marchal G, Smith KEC, Rein A, Winding A, Wollensen de Jonge L, Trapp S, Karlson UG (2013b) Impact of activated carbon, biochar and compost on the desorption and mineralization of phenanthrene in soil. Environ Pollut 181:200–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Margesin R, Schinner F (2001) Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56(5–6):650–663. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martín J, Santos JL, Aparicio I, Alonso E (2015) Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting. Sci Total Environ 503–504:97–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mayer P, Karlson U, Christensen PS, Johnsen AR, Trapp S (2005) Quantifying the effect of medium composition on the diffusive mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals through unstirred boundary layers. Environ Sci Technol 39(16):6123–6129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mayer P, Fernqvist MM, Christensen PS, Karlson U, Trapp S (2007) Enhanced diffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial and natural aqueous solutions. Environ Sci Technol 41(17):6148–6155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Megharaj M, Ramakrishnan B, Venkateswarlu K, Sethunathan N, Naidu R (2011) Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: a critical perspective. Environ Int 37(8):1362–1375. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moeller J, Reeh U (2003) Degradation of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPE) in sewage sludge and source separated municipal solid waste under bench-scale composting conditions. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 70(2):248–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Morimoto K, Tatsumi K (1997) Effect of humic substances on the enzymatic formation of OCDD from PCP. Chemosphere 34(5–7):1277–1283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Öberg LG, Glas B, Swanson SE, Rappe C, Paul KG (1990) Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chlorophenols to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19(6):930–938. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ortega-Calvo J-J, Saiz-Jimenez C (1998) Effect of humic fractions and clay on biodegradation of Phenanthrene by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 64(8):3123–3126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pakou C, Kornaros M, Stamatelatou K, Lyberatos G (2009) On the fate of LAS, NPEOs and DEHP in municipal sewage sludge during composting. Bioresour Technol 100(4):1634–1642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peng R-H, Xiong A-S, Xue Y, Fu X-Y, Gao F, Zhao W, Tian Y-S, Yao Q-H (2008) Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32(6):927–955. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peng J, Zhang Y, Su J, Qiu Q, Jia Z, Zhu Y-G (2013) Bacterial communities predominant in the degradation of 13C4-4,5,9,10-pyrene during composting. Bioresour Technol 143:608–614. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pignatello JJ, Xing B (1995) Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles. Environ Sci Technol 30(1):1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pignatello JJ, Kwon S, Lu Y (2006) Effect of natural organic substances on the surface and adsorptive properties of environmental black carbon (char): attenuation of surface activity by humic and fulvic acids. Environ Sci Technol 40(24):7757–7763. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Potts M (1994) Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiol Rev 58(4):755–805Google Scholar
  77. Puglisi E, Cappa F, Fragoulis G, Trevisan M, Del Re AAM (2007) Bioavailability and degradation of phenanthrene in compost amended soils. Chemosphere 67(3):548–556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ramaswamy J, Prasher SO, Patel RM, Hussain SA, Barrington SF (2010) The effect of composting on the degradation of a veterinary pharmaceutical. Bioresour Technol 101(7):2294–2299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rein A, Adam IKU, Miltner A, Brumme K, Kästner M, Trapp S (2016) Impact of bacterial activity on turnover of insoluble hydrophobic substrates (phenanthrene and pyrene)—model simulations for prediction of bioremediation success. J Hazard Mater 306:105–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ro KS, Preston KT, Seiden S, Bergs MA (1998) Remediation composting process principles: focus on soils contaminated with explosive compounds. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 28(3):253–282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Šašek V, Bhatt M, Cajthaml T, Malachová K, Lednická D (2003) Compost-mediated removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44(3):336–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Semblante GU, Hai FI, Huang X, Ball AS, Price WE, Nghiem LD (2015) Trace organic contaminants in biosolids: impact of conventional wastewater and sludge processing technologies and emerging alternatives. J Hazard Mater 300:1–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Semple KT, Reid BJ, Fermor TR (2001) Impact of composting strategies on the treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. Environ Pollut 112(2):269–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shelton DR, Doherty MA (1997) A model describing pesticide bioavailability and biodegradation in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61(4):1078–1084. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Singh A, Sharma S (2003) Effect of microbial Inocula on mixed solid waste composting, vermicomposting and plant response. Compost Sci Util 11(3):190–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smith KEC, Thullner M, Wick LY, Harms H (2009) Sorption to humic acids enhances polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation. Environ Sci Technol 43(19):7205–7211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Smith KEC, Thullner M, Wick LY, Harms H (2011) Dissolved organic carbon enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase. Environ Sci Technol 45(20):8741–8747. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Steffen K, Hatakka A, Hofrichter M (2002) Removal and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60(1–2):212–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stringfellow WT, Alvarez-Cohen L (1999) Evaluating the relationship between the sorption of PAHs to bacterial biomass and biodegradation. Water Res 33(11):2535–2544. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Thummes K, Kämpfer P, Jäckel U (2007) Temporal change of composition and potential activity of the thermophilic archaeal community during the composting of organic material. Syst Appl Microbiol 30(5):418–429. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Trautmann NM, Krasny ME (1998) Composting in the classroom: scientific inquiry for high school students. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  92. Tuomela M, Vikman M, Hatakka A, Itävaara M (2000) Biodegradation of lignin in a compost environment: a review. Bioresour Technol 72(2):169–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. US EPA (1994) Tech trends: the applied technologies Journal for Superfund Removals and Remedial Actions and RCRA Corrective Actions, November 1994Google Scholar
  94. US EPA (1997) Innovative uses of compost: composting of soils contaminated by explosives. US EPA Publ. EPA530-F-97-045, 1–4Google Scholar
  95. Vacca DJ, Bleam WF, Hickey WJ (2005) Isolation of soil Bacteria adapted to degrade humic acid-sorbed phenanthrene. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(7):3797–3805. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Gestel K, Mergaert J, Swings J, Coosemans J, Ryckeboer J (2003) Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting with biowaste. Environ Pollut 125(3):361–368. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vasskog T, Bergersen O, Anderssen T, Jensen E, Eggen T (2009) Depletion of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during sewage sludge composting. Waste Manag 29(11):2808–2815. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Viamajala S, Peyton BM, Richards LA, Petersen JN (2007) Solubilization, solution equilibria, and biodegradation of PAH’s under thermophilic conditions. Chemosphere 66(6):1094–1106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Volkering F, Breure AM, Sterkenburg A, van Andel JG (1992) Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: effect of substrate availability on bacterial growth kinetics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 36(4):548–552. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang X, Cui H, Shi J, Zhao X, Zhao Y, Wei Z (2015) Relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters during composting of different raw materials. Bioresour Technol 198:395–402. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wehrer M, Rennert T, Totsche KU (2013) Kinetic control of contaminant release from NAPLs – experimental evidence. Environ Pollut 179:315–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wéry N (2014) Bioaerosols from composting facilities – a review. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wick LY, Colangelo T, Harms H (2001) Kinetics of mass transfer-limited bacterial growth on solid PAHs. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):354–361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wiesmann U (1994) Biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. In: Biotechnics/wastewater. Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology, vol 51. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 113–154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wong JWC, Fang M, Zhao Z, Xing B (2004) Effect of surfactants on solubilization and degradation of phenanthrene under thermophilic conditions. J Environ Qual 33(6):2015–2025. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Xia K, Bhandari A, Das K, Pillar G (2005) Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in biosolids. J Environ Qual 34(1):91–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Xing B, Pignatello JJ, Gigliotti B (1996) Competitive sorption between atrazine and other organic compounds in soils and model sorbents. Environ Sci Technol 30(8):2432–2440. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Youngquist CP, Mitchell SM, Cogger CG (2016) Fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance during digestion and composting: a review. J Environ Qual 45(2):537–545. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang Y, Zhu Y-G, Houot S, Qiao M, Nunan N, Garnier P (2011) Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil through composting with fresh organic wastes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(9):1574–1584. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ondřej Lhotský
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Stefano Covino
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tomáš Cajthaml
    • 4
    • 2
  1. 1.DEKONTA a.s.Prague Czech Republic
  2. 2.Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Biology and BiotechnologyUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  4. 4.Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of SciencesPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations