Advertisement

Calcaneovalgus and Congenital Vertical Talus

  • Marissa S. David
  • Glenn M. Weinraub
Chapter

Abstract

Pediatric flatfoot deformities present at birth are seen with varying degrees of severity. Two commonly seen deformities are calcaneovalgus and congenital vertical talus. Calcaneovalgus is a flexible dorsiflexion and eversion deformity and is easily reducible. Mild cases are often self-correcting, while more severe cases require manual manipulation and serial casting. Congenital vertical talus is a rigid deformity of the vertically orientated talus associated with dorsolateral and equinus contractures. This deformity is often associated with genetic or neuromuscular disorders. The preferred treatment is a combination of serial casting and minimally invasive surgical intervention. Casting has been found to be rarely successful in isolation. This chapter will discuss in detail the diagnosis and treatment of each of these deformities.

Keywords

Calcaneovalgus Congenital vertical talus Pediatric rocker bottom deformity Serial casting Percutaneous Kirschner fixation Percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening 

References

  1. 1.
    Tachdjian MO. The child’s foot. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sullivan JA. Pediatric flatfoot: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1999;7:44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Graham JM, Sanchez-Lara PA. Calcaneovalgus (pes planus) in Smith Recognizable Patterns of Human Deformation. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larsen B, et al. Congenital calcaneovalgus. Acta Orthop Scand. 1974;45:145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giannestras NJ. Recognition and treatment of flatfeet in infancy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1970;70:10–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Widhe T. Foot deformities at birth: a longitudinal prospective study over a 16-year period. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997;17:20–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jacobsen ST, Craford AH. Congenital vertical talus. J Pediatr Orthop. 1983;3(3):306–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mickie J, Radomisli T. Congenital vertical talus: a review. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2010;27:145–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang JS, Dobbs MB. Treatment of congenital vertical talus: comparison of minimally invasive and extensive soft tissue release procedures at minimum five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg. 2015;97:1354–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levinsohn EM, et al. Congenital vertical talus and its familial occurrence: an analysis of 36 patients. Skelet Radiol. 2004;33:649–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shrimpton AE, et al. A HOX gene mutation in a family with isolated congenital vertical talus and Charcot-Marie-tooth disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;75:92–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gurnett, et al. Absence of HOXD10 mutations in idiopathic clubfeet and sporadic vertical talus. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 2007;462:27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Merrill, et al. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(4):1167–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Osmond-Clarke H. Congenital vertical talus. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1956;38(1):334–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Herndon CH, Heyman CH. Problems in the recognition and treatment of congenital pes valgus. J Bone Surg Am. 1963;45:413–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coleman SS, et al. Pathomechanics and treatment of congenital vertical talus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1970;70:62–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ogata K, et al. Congenital vertical talus and its familial occurrence: an analysis of 36 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979;139:128–32.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seimon LP. Surgical correction of congenital vertical talus under the age of 2 years. J Pediatr Orthop. 1987;7(4):405–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mazzocca AD, et al. Comparison of the posterior approach versus the dorsal approach in the treatment of congenital vertical talus. J Pediatr Orthop. 2001;21(2):212–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dobbs, et al. Early results of a new treatment for idiopathic congenital vertical talus. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006;88(6):1192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chalayon O, et al. Minimally invasive approach for the treatment of non-isolated congenital vertical talus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(11):73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eberhardt O, et al. The talar-axis-first metatarsal-base angle in CVT treatment: a comparison of idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases treated with the Dobbs methods. J Child Orthop. 2012;6(6):491–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aslani, et al. Primary outcomes of the congenital vertical talus correction using the Dobbs method of serial casting and limited surgery. J Child Orthop. 2012;6(4):307–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wright et al. Reverse Ponseti-type treatment for children with congenital vertical talus: comparison between idiopathic and teratological patients. Bone Joint J. 2014;96(2):274–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marissa S. David
    • 1
  • Glenn M. Weinraub
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Podiatric Surgery Resident (PGY-III), Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara and GSAASanta ClaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryTPMG- GSAASan LeandroUSA
  3. 3.Midwestern UniversityGlendaleUSA
  4. 4.Western UniversityPomonaUSA

Personalised recommendations