Radiology of the Normal Foot

  • Robert A. ChristmanEmail author


Radiographic interpretation of the pediatric foot and ankle is challenging. Not only do radiographic presentations vary at different ages, but variation occurs from patient to patient even at the same age, especially between male and female. Furthermore, several bones are not yet visible radiographically in the infant, which can confound observation and determination of osseous relationships and alignment. This chapter will provide guidance to address these challenges by discussing normal developmental anatomy, developmental variants, positioning techniques (including radiation protection and safety), and alignment relationships.


Radiology Foot Pediatric Child Normal developmental anatomy Developmental variants Positioning techniques Alignment relationships 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Podiatric Medicine, Western University of Health SciencesPomonaUSA

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