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Theranostic Potential of Aptamers in Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

  • Bushra Jamil
  • Nagina Atlas
  • Asma Qazi
  • Bushra Uzair
Chapter

Abstract

Worldwide the infectious diseases are a major threat to the human population. However, the most important parameter is the prompt and sensitive diagnosis of pathogens. Therefore, tremendous efforts have been made for the development of rapid and portable detection techniques. The identification and treatment of infectious diseases at the nano and molecular levels is a hard task to achieve because of the scarcity of effective probes for characterization and recognition of biomarkers of these pathogens. Nonetheless, if it made possible simultaneous diagnosis and treatment at the specific spot, i.e., theranostics can be beneficial for treating the disease at a cellular level and can be helpful to understand the disease system. However, for theranostics a sensing system should be able to detect and measure biomarkers quickly. In this regard, aptamers (oligonucleotide polymers consist of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA) have displayed the ability to be used as probes for the recognition of various targets at molecular level. DNA and RNA have the capacity of doing much lot than just keeping genetic information and therefore are also known as functional nucleic acids. Aptamer-based biosensors would be an attractive format because they can be developed for various molecules using the same sensing format. Therefore, the aptasensors utilizing aptamers for various bacterial infections have stimulating theranostic potential as well. In this chapter, the potential of aptamers as theranostic agent for bacterial infections has been discussed. The advantages and limitations of aptamer-based theranostics for the development of personalized medicine are also discussed.

Keywords

SELEX Aptamers Microbial recognition elements Advanced microbial detection 

Nomenclature

ABSA

Aptamer-based sandwich assay

AuNPs

Gold nanoparticles

Bap

Biofilm-associated protein

ELASA

Enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

LNA

Locked nucleic acid

mAbs

Monoclonal antibodies

MRE

Molecular recognition elements

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

SELEX

Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment

SEs

Staphylococcal enterotoxins

SiNPs

Silica nanoparticles

ssDNA

Single-stranded DNA

WB-SELEX

Whole-bacteria SELEX

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bushra Jamil
    • 1
  • Nagina Atlas
    • 3
  • Asma Qazi
    • 2
  • Bushra Uzair
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of DMLSUniversity of LahoreIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of BiogeneticsNational University of Medical SciencesRawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesInternational Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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