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Nanomaterials for Selective Targeting of Intracellular Pathogens

  • Muhammad Ali Syed
  • Nayab Ali
Chapter

Abstract

Many infectious diseases are caused by intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, Plasmodium species, Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella species, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Infections caused by such pathogens are treated with antimicrobial agents. Nevertheless, selective targeting of intracellular pathogens is difficult due to the reason that the drug has to enter the infected host cells in order to target or kill the infectious agent. Further, nonspecific interaction of the antimicrobial agent also affects noninfected body cells. On one side there is substantial loss of drug in the body due to nonspecific interaction while, on the other hand, many drugs find it difficult to enter the host cells. Targeted drug delivery using nanomaterials offers unique and efficient opportunity to deliver the drug loaded in the nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, or micelles into the host cells infected with intracellular pathogens. Furthermore, sustained drug release inside the infected cells may solve the issues of bioavailability and patient compliance. Research studies conducted by different groups have shown promising results of drug-loaded nanocarriers against intracellular pathogens in a number of studies. This chapter discusses various types of intracellular pathogens, nanocarriers, and their role in targeted drug delivery of intracellular pathogens.

Keywords

Intracellular pathogens Nanomaterials Nanocarriers Targeted drug delivery Liposomes 

Nomenclature

AuNPs

Gold nanoparticles

CAMP

Cationic antimicrobial peptides

CPP

Cell-penetrating peptides

LPG

Lipophosphoglycan

MPS

Mononuclear phagocytic system

MSNPs

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PLA

Poly lactic acid

PLGA

Poly lactide-co-glycolide

PMA

Polymethacrylic acid

PMs

Polymeric micelles

PV

Parasitophorous vacuole

SCV

Salmonella containing vacuole

SLNPs

Solid lipid nanoparticles

T3SS

Type III secretion system

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Ali Syed
    • 1
  • Nayab Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyThe University of HaripurHaripurPakistan

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