Thermochronological Constraints on the Exhumation of the Malargüe Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern Central Andes

  • Alejandro BandeEmail author
  • Andrés Boll
  • Facundo Fuentes
  • Brian K. Horton
  • Daniel F. Stockli
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)


The structural evolution of the southern Central Andes has been widely studied with a general consensus on its geometry and regional architecture. However, the timing of uplift is poorly constrained, with estimates ranging from Late Cretaceous to Pliocene. New thermochronometric results from the Malargüe fold-thrust belt (MFTB) reveal diachronous Neogene cooling and exhumation associated with contractional deformation in this sector of the Central Andes. The Malargüe fold-thrust belt is an excellent example of inversion structures superimposed on a backarc extensional basin (the Late Triassic–Cretaceous Neuquén Basin). As in many other inverted structural systems, preexisting discontinuities play a substantial role in the distribution of shortening and erosional exhumation. Apatite fission track and (U–Th)/He data together with thermal modeling help to define early Miocene (~20 Ma) rapid cooling in hinterland sectors of the MFTB coupled with thin-skinned shortening and retroarc foreland basin development to the east. By 10–7 Ma, continued shortening reactivated the easternmost frontal structures (e.g., Río Atuel fault) and partially inverted the Neuquén Basin. Subsequent deformation exhumed hinterland structures (e.g., Dedos-Silla block) by 5–2 Ma. These temporal constraints reveal that shortening-induced exhumation operated in a disparate manner, rather than following a systematic progression from hinterland to foreland. Additionally, thermal models of the fission track and (U–Th)/He data tightly constrain a long period (~40 Myr) of very slow cooling during an early–middle Cenozoic phase of neutral stress conditions.


Apatite fission track and (U–Th)/He thermochronology Neogene exhumation Malargüe fold-thrust belt 



This research was supported by funding from Tecpetrol S.A. and a U.S. National Science Foundation grant (EAR-1348031) to B. K. Horton. We acknowledge corrections and comments by José Mescua and editor Andrés Folguera that significantly improved the contribution. We thank Daniel Starck, Sebastián Ramirez, Kurt Constenius, and Mariya Levina for useful discussions that improved the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Bande
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrés Boll
    • 2
  • Facundo Fuentes
    • 3
  • Brian K. Horton
    • 4
  • Daniel F. Stockli
    • 4
  1. 1.Tecpetrol S.A.Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Independent ConsultantBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.YPF S.A.Buenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Jackson School of GeosciencesUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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