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The Andean Foreland Evolution of the Neuquén Basin: A Discussion

  • Facundo FuentesEmail author
  • Brian K. Horton
Chapter
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)

Abstract

The Neuquén Basin of west-central Argentina preserves a complex structural and stratigraphic record of the Andean orogeny marked by intermittent periods of foreland sediment accumulation, bypass, and regional exhumation and erosion. Nonmarine deposits of the Cenomanian–Campanian Neuquén Group are the earliest of foreland basin affinity, with clear input from western sediment sources and relatively rapid subsidence rates. However, available provenance and structural data fail to demonstrate a Late Cretaceous regional fold-thrust belt capable of creating rapid accommodation and voluminous sediment supply, suggesting that the magmatic arc may have played an important role as a flexural load and sediment source. The Upper Cretaceous basin architecture defined by the Neuquén Group seems to mimic that of underlying Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous units, indicating either a continued thermal contribution to basin subsidence and/or flexure concentrated along previously thinned lithosphere. Fine-grained marine and nonmarine facies of the overlying Campanian–Eocene Malargüe Group were deposited under slowing rates of subsidence and unclear tectonic conditions. These deposits are capped by a condensed section or unconformity of late Eocene to earliest Miocene age. This foreland hiatus is contemporaneous with the development of extensional basins in the orogen interior, possibly resulting from slab rollback and decoupling along the subduction plate margin, with sediment bypass and minor erosion in the foreland basin aided by a global sea-level lowstand. At ca. 20 Ma, proximal areas adjacent to the advancing fold-thrust belt started accumulating coarse clastic fluvial and alluvial fan deposits in an unambiguous flexural foreland basin. However, Neogene deposition farther east remained irregular, with only relatively thin accumulations in localized zones. In the distal foreland, erosional exhumation rather than sediment accumulation was the dominant process since late Eocene to Oligocene time.

Keywords

Thermal versus flexural subsidence Late Cretaceous Paleogene Neogene Coupling versus decoupling subduction Sedimentation rates Neutral regime 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the editors of this volume, Andrés Folguera and Diego Kietzmann, for the invitation to present this work. We gratefully acknowledge informative discussions with Ignacio Brisson, Victor Ramos, Guillermo Fratti, Andrés Boll, and Daniel Starck. We thank Lucas Fennell for a careful review that helped improve this contribution.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.YPF S.A.Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Geological Sciences and Institute for Geophysics, Jackson School of GeosciencesUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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