Advertisement

Wellbeing pp 147-155 | Cite as

Addressing Individual Factors

  • Robyn RichmondEmail author
  • Sharmila Dissanaike
Chapter
  • 10 Downloads
Part of the Success in Academic Surgery book series (SIAS)

Abstract

When burnout and suicide among physicians first became a mainstream topic, individual wellness factors initially received the most attention. While it is now clear that system-based approaches work best to prevent severe manifestations of work-related stress, anxiety and depression such as burnout, attention to individual wellness should be part of a healthy, balanced lifestyle for everyone, healthcare professionals included. Adequate sleep, maintaining fitness and a healthy weight and regular exercise are prescribed by primary care physicians everywhere, yet often observed in the breach by physicians themselves. Nobody disputes the benefits of these measures; the question is how do we decide which practices to prioritize, and then find the time to engage in these measures, in the midst of busy professional and personal lives?

Keywords

Healthcare role Self-care Emotional intelligence Mindfulness 

References

  1. 1.
    Wu AW, Folkman S, McPhee SJ, Lo B. Do house officers learn from their mistakes? JAMA. 1991;265(16):2089–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps G, Russell T, Dyrbye L, Satele D, et al. Burnout and medical errors among American surgeons. Ann Surg. 2010;251(6):995–1000.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dindo D, Demartines N, Clavien P. Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey. Ann Surg. 2004;240(2):205–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christensen JF, Levinson W, Dunn PM. The heart of darkness: the impact of perceived mistakes on physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 1992;7(4):424–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Waterman AD, Garbutt J, Hazel E, Dunagan WC, Levinson W, Fraser VJ, et al. The emotional impact of medical errors on practicing physicians in the United States and Canada. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007;33(8):467–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu AW. Medical error: the second victim. The doctor who makes the mistake needs help too. BMJ. 2000;320(7237):726–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laurent A, Aubert L, Chahraoui K, Bioy A, Mariage A, Quenot JP, et al. Error in intensive care: psychological repercussions and defense mechanisms among health professionals. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(11):2370–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    West CP, Huschka MM, Novotny PJ, Sloan JA, Kolars JC, Habermann TM, et al. Association of perceived medical errors with resident distress and empathy: a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA. 2006;296(9):1071–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fahrenkopf AM, Sectish TC, Barger LK, Sharek PJ, Lewin D, Chiang VW, et al. Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;336(7642):488–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engel KG, Rosenthal M, Sutcliffe KM. Residents’ responses to medical error: coping, learning, and change. Acad Med. 2006;81(1):86–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garrouste-Orgeas M, Philippart F, Bruel C, Max A, Lau N, Misset B. Overview of medical errors and adverse events. Ann Intensive Care. 2012;2(1):2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Scott SD, Hirschinger LE, Cox KR, McCoig M, Brandt J, Hall LW. The natural history of recovery for the healthcare provider “second victim” after adverse patient events. Qual Saf Health Care. 2009;18(5):325–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sirriyeh R, Lawton R, Gardner P, Armitage G. Coping with medical errors: a systematic review of papers to assess the effects of involvement in medical errors on healthcare professionals’ psychological well-being. Qual Saf Health Care. 2010;19(6):e43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aasland OG, Forde R. Impact of feeling responsible for adverse events on doctors’ personal and professional lives: the importance of being open to criticism from colleagues. Qual Saf Health Care. 2005;14(1):13–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taylor C, Xyrichis A, Leamy MC, Reynolds E, Maben J. Can Schwartz Center Rounds support healthcare staff with emotional challenges at work, and how do they compare with other interventions aimed at providing similar support? A systematic review and scoping reviews. BMJ Open. 2018;8(10):e024254.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gunasingam N, Burns K, Edwards J, Dinh M, Walton M. Reducing stress and burnout in junior doctors: the impact of debriefing sessions. Postgrad Med J. 2015;91(1074):182–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mitchell AM, Sakraida TJ, Kameg K. Critical incident stress debriefing: implications for best practice. Disaster Manag Response. 2003;1(2):46–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Staender SE, Manser T. Taking care of patients, relatives and staff after critical incidents and accidents. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012;29(7):303–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fisseni G, Pentzek M, Abholz HH. Responding to serious medical error in general practice—consequences for the GPs involved: analysis of 75 cases from Germany. Fam Pract. 2008;25(1):9–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kroll L, Singleton A, Collier J, Rees Jones I. Learning not to take it seriously: junior doctors’ accounts of error. Med Educ. 2008;42(10):982–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Crigger NJ, Meek VL. Toward a theory of self-reconciliation following mistakes in nursing practice. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2007;39(2):177–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Uallachain GN. Attitudes towards self-health care: a survey of GP trainees. Ir Med J. 2007;100(6):489–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shanafelt TD, Oreskovich MR, Dyrbye LN, Satele DV, Hanks JB, Sloan JA, et al. Avoiding burnout: the personal health habits and wellness practices of US surgeons. Ann Surg. 2012;255(4):625–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harms BA, Heise CP, Gould JC, Starling JR. A 25-year single institution analysis of health, practice, and fate of general surgeons. Ann Surg. 2005;242(4):520–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krogsboll LT, Jorgensen KJ, Gronhoj Larsen C, Gotzsche PC. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease: cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;345:e7191.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leventer-Roberts M, Zonfrillo MR, Yu S, Dziura JD, Spiro DM. Overweight physicians during residency: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Grad Med Educ. 2013;5(3):405–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Battles SM, Williams CJ, Duldner JE. Body composition change during the intern year of emergency medicine residency. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44(4):S76–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical activity for everyone [Internet]. Updated 2018 Nov 12; cited 2018 Dec 10. www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/adults.html#aerobic.
  29. 29.
    Soderstrom M, Jeding K, Ekstedt M, Perski A, Akerstedt T. Insufficient sleep predicts clinical burnout. J Occup Health Psychol. 2012;17(2):175–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolf MR, Rosenstock JB. Inadequate sleep and exercise associated with burnout and depression among medical students. Acad Psychiatry. 2017;41(2):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rosen IM, Gimotty PA, Shea JA, Bellini LM. Evolution of sleep quantity, sleep deprivation, mood disturbances, empathy, and burnout among interns. Acad Med. 2006;81(1):82–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health. 2015;1(1):40–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dickinson DL, Wolkow AP, Rajaratnam SM, Drummond SP. Personal sleep debt and daytime sleepiness mediate the relationship between sleep and mental health outcomes in young adults. Depress Anxiety. 2018;35(8):775–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vlachou EM, Damigos D, Lyrakos G, Chanopoulos K, Kosmidis G, Karavis M. The relationship between burnout syndrome and emotional intelligence in healthcare professionals. Health Sci J. 2016;10:52.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goleman D. Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam Books; 1996.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 8 things to know about meditation for health [Internet]. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health. [Updated 2018 Jan 30; Cited 2019 Jan 10]. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tips/meditation.

Suggested Reading

    Emotional Intelligence

    1. Bradberry T, Greaves J. Emotional Intelligence 2.0. San Diego: Talentsmart; 2009.Google Scholar
    2. Chapman D, Dethmer J, Klemp K. The 15 Commitments of Conscious Leadership: A new paradigm for sustainable success. Kaley Warner Klemp Conscious Leadership Group; 2015. ISBN: 970990976905.Google Scholar
    3. Eurich T. Insight: Why we’re not as Self-Aware as we think, and how seeing ourselves clearly helps us succeed at work and life. Crown Business; 2017. ISBN: 9780451496812.Google Scholar

    Mindfulness

    1. Gunaratna BH. Mindfulness in plain English. Boston: Wisdom Publications; 2014.Google Scholar
    2. Tan C-M. Search inside yourself. Harper Collins; 2013.Google Scholar
    3. Zinn JK, Hahn TN. Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in daily life. New York: Hyperion; 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryTexas Tech University Health Sciences CenterLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations