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Hysteroscopy During Menopause

  • Jose CarugnoEmail author
  • Antonio Simone Laganà
Chapter

Abstract

Menopause is characterized by permanent cessation of menstrual periods, and clinically defined after 12 months of complete amenorrhea. It occurs at a median age of 51 alongside with the physiological process of ageing, although it can happen at an earlier age for other medical conditions or after surgery (surgical menopause). Due to reduced estrogen and progesterone levels, reproductive organs undergo progressive atrophy. This reflects also at endometrial level: without the cyclic hormonal actions of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium in menopause becomes atrophic. Nevertheless, many other intrauterine pathologies, such as endometrial or cervical polyps, submucous myomas, and uterine septa, may all be diagnosed during menopause. In addition, the possibility offered by hormone replacement therapy modifies the endometrium, which may proliferate under hormonal stimuli.

In this chapter we report common scenarios observed during hysteroscopy in postmenopausal women, with emphasis on indications, diagnostic/therapeutic role of hysteroscopy when performed during menopause, and limits of the technique.

Keywords

Menopause Hysteroscopy Postmenopausal bleeding Atrophic endometrium Endometrial thickness Cervical stenosis 

Supplementary material

Video 19.1

Illustrating flow of red blood cells inside the vasculature of an endometrial polyp (MPG 325280 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive SciencesUniversity of Miami, Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology“Filippo Del Ponte” Hospital, University of InsubriaVareseItaly

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