Antipsychotics: Motor Side Effects
Antipsychotics can cause a wide range of motor side effects. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations of the acute extrapyramidal syndromes (acute dystonic reaction, akathisia, Parkinsonism) and their treatments. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) as an important and irreversible movement disorder from chronic antipsychotic use is discussed, with emphasis on prevention and longitudinal assessment. Two new medications, valbenazine and deutetrabenazine, from the class of VMAT-2 inhibitors represent more effective and better-tolerated treatments for TD. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) as a rare but potentially lethal complication of antipsychotics completes this chapter.
KeywordsExtrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) Acute dystonic reaction (ADR) Akathisia Parkinsonism Tardive dyskinesia Prevention Assessment Treatment VMAT-2 inhibitors Neuroleptic-induced dysphoria Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
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