Am I Moving Along a Curve? A Study on Bicycle Traveling-In-Place Techniques in Virtual Environments

  • Tanh Quang TranEmail author
  • Holger Regenbrecht
  • Minh-Triet Tran
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11749)


There are many techniques for locomotion and navigation that can support the exploration of large virtual environments in a limited physical area. Previous studies focused on measuring curvature gains and bending gains applied to the walking direction in the real world. However, the effects of different moving techniques and their relationship with shapes and patterns of virtually moving paths have not been studied extensively before. In this study, we present our experimental results on how users perceive two different traveling-in-place techniques with different bending gains of moving paths using a hybrid electric bike simulator. Moreover, the impact of different factors including road textures, road widths, and road curve directions and their relationships with the techniques are investigated. Generally, users could travel along a curve without noticing with a point of subjective equality (PSE) at bending angle \(\beta \) = 1.42\(^\circ \), and a just-noticeable difference (JND) of 0.75\(^\circ \) for a movement at around 20 km/h during 5 s. In addition, movement technique, curve direction, and future travel path significantly affected how they perceived the curvature of their travel path.


Curve perception Locomotion Virtual reality Traveling-in-place Human perception Redirected walking 



The authors would like to thank Thanh Dat Ngoc Tran and Tam Duy Nguyen for supporting the development of the bicycle system and the virtual environment. In addition, we would also like to thank Trung-Hieu Hoang and Mai-Khiem Tran for assisting in conducting users study. The authors would also like to thank our participants for taking part in the experiment. Finally, the authors also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the coordinator for their constructive comments and useful recommendations.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 39688 KB)


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanh Quang Tran
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Holger Regenbrecht
    • 2
  • Minh-Triet Tran
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Science, VNUHCMHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

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