Advertisement

Deterrence pp 35-56 | Cite as

Deterrence and Diplomacy

  • Afzal AshrafEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)

Abstract

This chapter considers the roles of, and the relationship between, deterrence and diplomacy, exploring these concepts in the context of power politics, threat perception and fear, and how these factors and the underlying political philosophies of liberalism and realism shape relevant policies and strategies. The challenge to deterrence through the impact of reputation shaped by perceptions of states’ success and failure in past conflicts, is used to identify the current crisis in deterrence capability. That crisis is aggravated by the changing nature of security threats and these are examined to establish the positive role that diplomacy can play in addressing them through a different way of thinking and approach. Deterrence of emerging challenges, including hybrid warfare, and the need to update nuclear deterrence thinking are also discussed from a diplomacy perspective.

References

  1. Ashraf MA (2012) Al Qaeda’s ideology through political myth and rhetoric. Thesis submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of St Andrews, 2012Google Scholar
  2. Aune JA, Medhurst MJ (2008) The prospect of presidential rhetoric. Presidential rhetoric series, 1st edn. Texas A&M University Press, College StationGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernstein BJ (1980) The Cuban missile crisis: trading the Jupiters in Turkey? Political Sci Q 95(1):97–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolger DP (2014) Why we lost: a General’s inside account of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Chivvis CS (2017) Understanding Russian ‘Hybrid Warfare’. Testimony presented before the House Armed Services Committee on March 22, 2017. The RAND CorporationGoogle Scholar
  6. Cowper S (2011) Losing small wars: British military failure in Iraq and Afghanistan. The New Statesman. [Online] Available at: https://www.newstatesman.com/books/2011/08/afghanistan-iraq-british [Retrieved: January 2, 2018]
  7. Curtis CP (2008) Theorizing fear: Octavia Butler and the realist utopia. Utop Stud 19(3):411–431Google Scholar
  8. Davidson CM (2017) Why was Muammar Qadhafi really removed? Middle East Policy 24(4):91–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Magalhaes JC (1988) The pure concept of diplomacy, vol 214. Greewood Press, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  10. Department of Defense (2006) Deterrence operations joint operating concept. Department of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Department of Defense (2013) Doctrine for the armed forces of the United States, 25 March 2013. Department of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  12. Friedrichs J (2016) An intercultural theory of international relations: how self-worth underlies politics among nations. Int Theory 8(1):63–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herman M (1999) Intelligence power in peace and war. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. HM Government (2015) The National security strategy and strategic defence and security review 2015Google Scholar
  15. Huth P, Russett B (1984) What makes deterrence work? Cases from 1900 to 1980. World Polit 36(4):496–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalinovsky AM (2009) A long goodbye: the politics and diplomacy of the soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, 1980–1992. London School of Economics, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Kissinger H (1994) Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Koreshi S (2004) Diplomats and diplomacy: story of an era, 1947–1987. Khursheed Printers, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  19. Korybko A (2015) Hybrid wars: the indirect adaptive approach to regime change. Moscow Peoples’ Friendship University of RussiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Lebow RN (1983) The Cuban missile crisis: reading the lessons correctly. Political Sci Q 98(3):431–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liddell H, Henry B (1946) The revolution in warfare. Faber & Faber, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Lucinescu A (2017) Defence diplomacy is not always diplomacy: an inquiry into a partly misleading conceptual correlation. Strateg Impact 62(1):61–74Google Scholar
  23. MacLeod S (2006) Behind Gaddafi’s diplomatic turnaround. [Online] Available at: http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1195852,00.html [Retrieved: December 22, 2017]
  24. Marshall P (1997) Positive diplomacy. Macmillan Press/St Martin’s Press, Houndmills/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meyer C (2013) Getting our way: 500 years of adventure and intrigue: The inside story of British diplomacy. Hachette UK, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Mirkovic A (2014) Imperial history in pictures: Goetze murals in the United Kingdom’s Foreign Office. World history connected. Retrieved from https://worldhistoryconnected.press.uillinois.edu/11.1/forum_mirkovic.html
  27. Nicolson H (1950) Diplomacy, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. Nixon R (1978) The memoirs of Richard Nixon. Grosset & Dunlap, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Nye JS Jr (1990) The changing nature of world power. Political Sci Q 105(2):177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nye JS Jr (2004) Soft power: the means to success in world politics. Public Affairs, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Office of the Historian (n.d.) The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962. US State Department. [Online] Available at: http://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis [Retrieved Nov 2018]
  32. Porter B (2011) The battle of the styles: society, culture and the design of the new Foreign Office, 1855–1861. Continuum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Ricks TE (2012) General failure. [Online] Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/11/general-failure/309148/ [Retrieved Oct 2018]
  34. Robinson P (2006) Military honour and the conduct of war: from ancient Greece to Iraq. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sakwa R (2007) Putin: Russia’s choice. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sanders R (2018) Commentary: no regrets for making Haiti a ‘Shithole’? Caribbean news now, 22 January 2018Google Scholar
  37. Sartori AE (2005) Deterrence by diplomacy. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  38. Spencer J (n.d.) What is army doctrine? [Online] Available at: http://mwi.usma.edu.what-is-army-docrine/ [Retrieved Nov 2018]
  39. Strachan H, Scheipers S (eds) (2011) The changing character of war. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. van Puyvelde D (2015) Hybrid war – does it even exist? [Online] Available at: https://www.nato.int/docu/review/2015/Also-in-2015/hybrid-modern-future-warfare-russia-ukraine/EN/ [Retrieved Oct 2018]
  41. Wohlforth WC (2008) Unipolarity, status competition, and great power war. World Polit 61(1):28–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zakaria F (2017) US needs more, not less, Foreign Service Officers. Newsmax. [Online] Available at: https://www.newsmax.com/FareedZakaria/military-foreign-affairs-petraeus/2017/03/03/id/776760/ [Retrieved Sept 2018]

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Politics and International RelationsNottingham UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations