Etiology, Classifications, Mechanism of Action

  • Alberto GobbiEmail author
  • Graeme P. Whyte


Osteochondral lesions of the ankle are a significant cause of pain and functional impairment. These lesions affect people of all activity levels and may lead to progressive degenerative cartilage injury. Trauma is the most commonly cited etiologic factor. While plain radiography remains an important component of initial assessment, there may be a failure to diagnose osteochondral lesions if additional diagnostic imaging tools are not used. If injury to the osteochondral unit is suspected, comprehensive evaluation should include advanced imaging such as MRI to ensure accurate diagnosis, particularly in cases of persistent symptoms related to previous ankle trauma. Early diagnosis and accurate staging of osteochondral lesions will help ensure that appropriate treatment is provided in order to optimize outcomes.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.O.A.S.I. Bioresearch Foundation Gobbi NPOMilanItaly
  2. 2.New York Presbyterian Hospital/QueensNew YorkUSA

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