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Improving Bioavailability of Vitamin A in Food by Encapsulation: An Update

  • Vaibhav Kumar Maurya
  • Manjeet Aggarwal
  • Vijay Ranjan
  • K. M. Gothandam
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 39)

Abstract

Vitamin A is an obligatory micronutrient for healthy human life as it cannot be synthesized de novo and has to be acquired from dietary sources. The poor water solubility and susceptibility against photochemical degradation make vitamin A relatively unstable during food processing as well as storage. To combat prevailing vitamin A deficiency, various strategies have already been adopted in pharmaceutical industries to develop vitamin A formulation which has the ability to protect and minimize its degradation. On the one hand, in pharmaceutical formulations, vitamin A may be coupled with sub-toxic effects due to its buildup in the liver and other vital organ, while on the other hand its involvement against various health disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer has recently compelled the population to achieve vitamin A via pharmaceutical supplements, functional foods or food supplements. The success of pharmaceutical application encouraged food technologists to develop numerous premixes encapsulating vitamin A appropriately which can be successfully applied for the development of food supplements or vitamin A-rich functional foods. So this chapter is an update of the principal encapsulation techniques adopted for the development of vitamin A nanomaterials to improve its bioavailability and associated challenges with fabrication method.

Keywords

Vitamin A Retinol Encapsulation Bioavailability Micro-/nanoencapsulation Toxicity Functional food 

Abbreviations

ABCA

ATP-binding cassette

AFM

Atomic forces microscopy

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CRBP

Cellular retinol binding protein

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EU

European Union

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FSSAI

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared

GIT

Gastrointestinal tract

HSCs

Hepatic stellate cells

LRAT

Lecithin retinol acyltransferase

nm

Nanometer

O/W

Oil in water

O/W/O

Oil-in-water-in-oil

RDA

Recommended dietary allowance

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

UV

Ultraviolet

UVA

Ultraviolet A

UVB

Ultraviolet B

W/O

Water in oil

W/O/O

Water-in-oil-in-oil

W/O/O/W

Water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water

W/O/W

Water-in-oil-in-water

WHO

World Health Organization

μg/d

Microgram/day

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vaibhav Kumar Maurya
    • 1
  • Manjeet Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Vijay Ranjan
    • 2
  • K. M. Gothandam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Basic and Applied ScienceNational Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and ManagementSonepatIndia
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and ManagementSonepatIndia
  3. 3.School of Bio Sciences and TechnologyVellore Institute of TechnologyVelloreIndia

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