Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Enzymes for Biomedical Applications

  • Madan L. Verma
  • Pankaj Kumar
  • Sneh Sharma
  • Karuna Dhiman
  • Deepka Sharma
  • Aruna Verma
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 39)


Nanobiotechnology application, at the interface of nanocarrier and therapeutic enzyme, holds great promises in the nanomedicine. In this direction, gold nanocarriers contribute a plethora of nanobiotechnological applications due to their unique properties. The salient features of gold nanoparticle include high catalytic activity, unique optical properties, ease of surface functionalization, biocompatibility and long-period stability. The potential use of gold nanoparticle in conjunction with therapeutic enzymes can be further extended for curing many dreadful diseases.

We reviewed the suitability of gold nanocarrier-bound therapeutic enzyme delivery in biomedical modality, in particular to therapeutic application. The major health issues such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and brain disease are regulated with the intervention of gold nanoparticle-bound therapeutic enzyme delivery. Gold nanocarrier-bound therapeutic enzyme has increased the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic correlation in drug delivery. Therapeutic fungal asparaginase covalently immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles demonstrated higher cytotoxicity effect against lung cancer and ovarian cell lines. It is further demonstrated that the gold nanoparticle-bound asparaginase has increased its bioavailability up to 85% more against lung cancer. The serratiopeptidase-bound gold nanoparticle has considerably increased anti-inflammatory response. The present chapter is concluded with recent literature discussion that gold nanoparticle-bound therapeutic enzyme has broadened the scope of traditional therapeutics to effective therapeutic enzyme delivery.


Nanogold Biogenic methods Therapeutic enzyme Enzyme as a drug Bioconjugation Stability Applications Cell lines Drug delivery Anti-inflammatory Cancer 



The authors would like to thank the director of the Indian Institute of Information Technology Una for providing the necessary facility to carry out nanobiotechnology work.


  1. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Enazi NM, Ibraheem IBM (2017) Green biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Galaxaura elongata and characterization of their antibacterial activity. Arab J Chem 10:S3029–S3039. Scholar
  2. Abdulghani J, Hussain RK (2014) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles via chemical reduction of Au (III) Ions by isatin in aqueous solutions: ligand concentrations and pH effects. J Baghdad Sci 11:1201–1216. Scholar
  3. Abraham RE, Verma ML, Barrow CJ, Puri M (2014) Suitability of ferrite nanoparticles immobilised cellulases in enhancing enzymatic saccharification of pretreated hemp biomass. Biotechnol Biofuels 7:90. Scholar
  4. Ackerson CJ, Powell RD, Hainfeld JF (2010) Site-specific biomolecule labeling with gold clusters. Methods Enzymol 481:195–230. Scholar
  5. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S (2015a) A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise. J Adv Res 7:17–28. Scholar
  6. Ahmed S, Ullah S, Ahmad M, Swami BL (2015b) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica aqueous leaf extract. J Rad Res App Sci 9:1–7. Scholar
  7. Ahmed A, Nasim FH, Batool K, Bibi A (2017) Microbial β-glucosidase: sources, production and applications. J Appl Environ Microbiol 5:31–46. Scholar
  8. Akbarzadeh A, Zare D, Farhangi A, Mohammad RM, Norouzian D, Tangestaninejad S, Moghadam M, Bararpour N (2009) Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles by tryptophane. Am J Appl Sci 6:691–695. Scholar
  9. Annamalai A, Christina VLP, Sudha D, Kalpana M, Lakshmi PTV (2013) Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of AuNPs using Euphorbia hirta L. leaf extract. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 108:60–65. Scholar
  10. Aubin-Tam ME, Hamad-Schifferli K (2008) Structure and function of nanoparticle-protein conjugates. Biomed Mater 3:034001. Scholar
  11. Baker S, Satish S (2015) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 15:691–695. Scholar
  12. Banerjee A, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC (2004) Streptokinase-A clinically useful thrombolytic agent. Biotechnol Adv 22:287–307. Scholar
  13. Bankar SB, Bule MV, Singhal RS, Ananthanarayan L (2009) Glucose oxidase an overview. Biotechnol Adv 27:489–501. Scholar
  14. Baskar G, Renganathan S (2012) Optimization of L-asparaginase production by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 using response surface methodology and artificial neural network-linked genetic algorithm. Asia Pac J Chem Eng 7:212–220. Scholar
  15. Baskar G, Garrick BG, Lalitha K, Chamundeeswari M (2018) Gold nanoparticle mediated delivery of fungal asparaginase against cancer cells. J Drug Delivery Sci Technol 44:498–504. Scholar
  16. Bharde A, Rautaray D, Bansal V, Ahmad A, Sarkar I, Yusuf SM, Sanyal M, Sastry M (2006) Extracellular biosynthesis of magnetite using fungi. Small 2:135–141. Scholar
  17. Bindhu MR, Umadevi M (2014) Antibacterial activities of green synthesized gold nanoparticles. Funct Mater Lett 120:122–125. Scholar
  18. Bindhu MR, Vijaya Rekha P, Umamaheswari T, Umadevi M (2014) Antibacterial activities of Hibiscus cannabinus stem-assisted silver and gold nanoparticles. Mater Lett 131:194–197. Scholar
  19. Bisker G, Yeheskely-Hayon D, Minai L, Yelin D (2012) Controlled release of Rituximab from gold nanoparticles for phototherapy of malignant cells. J Control Release 162:303–309. Scholar
  20. Bosio VE, German A, Yanina N, Martinez ND, Guillermo R (2016) Nanodevices for the immobilization of therapeutic enzymes. Crit Rev Biotechnol 36:447–464. Scholar
  21. Brust M, Walker M, Bethell D, Schiffrin DJ, Whyman RJ (1994) Synthesis of thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid-liquid system. Chem Soc Chem Commun 7:801–802. Scholar
  22. Cassileth B (1998) The alternative medicine handbook. Norton WW & Co., New York. Scholar
  23. Chamundeeswari M, Jeslin J, Verma ML (2018) Nanocarriers for drug delivery applications. Environ Chem Lett. Scholar
  24. Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2006) Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe Vera plant extract. Biotechnol Prog 22:577–583. Scholar
  25. Chandran K, Song S, Yun S (2014) Effect of size and shape controlled biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their mode of interactions against food borne bacterial pathogens. Arabian J Chem (article in press). Scholar
  26. Chithrani DB, Dunne M, Stewart J, Allen C, Jaffray DA (2010) Cellular uptake and transport of gold nanoparticles incorporated in a liposomal carrier. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 6:161–169. Scholar
  27. Cho WS, Cho M, Jeong J, Choi M, Han BS, Shin HS, Hong J, Chung BH, Jeong J, Cho MH (2012) Size dependent tissue kinetics of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 245:116–123. Scholar
  28. Cooney DA, Rosenbluth RJ (1975) Enzymes as therapeutic agents. Adv Pharmacol Chemother 12:185–289. Scholar
  29. Correa-Llantén DN, Muñoz-Ibacache SA, Castro ME, Muñoz PA, Blamey JM (2013) Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Geobacillus sp. strain ID17 a thermophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island, Antarctica. Microb Cell Fact 12:1–6. Scholar
  30. Dabbagh F, Negahdaripour M, Berenjian A, Behfar A, Mohammadi F, Zamani M, Irajie C, Ghasemi Y (2014) Nattokinase: production and application. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:9199–9206. Scholar
  31. Daraee H, Eatemadi A, Abbasi E, Fekri AS, Kouhi M, Akbarzadeh A (2016) Application of gold nanoparticles in biomedical and drug delivery. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 44:410–422. Scholar
  32. Das J, Velusamy P (2014) Catalytic reduction of methylene blue using biogenic gold nanoparticles from Sesbania grandiflora L. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:2280–2285. Scholar
  33. Das RK, Gogoi N, Bora U (2011) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Nyctanthes arbortristis flower extract. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 34:615–619. Scholar
  34. Das SK, Dickinson C, Lafir F, Brougham DF, Marsili E (2012) Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles biosynthesized with Rhizopus oryzae protein extract. Green Chem 14:1322–1334. Scholar
  35. Dauthal P, Mukhopadhyay M (2012) Prunus domestica fruit extract- mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol reduction. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:13014–13020. Scholar
  36. DeLong RK, Reynolds CM, Malcolm Y, Schaeffer A, Severs T, Wanekaya A (2010) Functionalized gold nanoparticles for the binding, stabilization, and delivery of therapeutic DNA, RNA, and other biological macromolecules. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 3:53–63. Scholar
  37. Dolynchuk K, Keast D, Campbell K (2000) Best practices for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. Ostomy/Wound Manag 46:38–53. Scholar
  38. Du L, Hong J, Xiaohua L, Erkang W (2007) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles assisted by Escherichia coli DH5α and its application on direct electrochemistry of haemoglobin. Electrochem Commun. 9:1165–1170. Scholar
  39. Dubey R, Paul A, Prity N (2015) Isolation, production & screening of anti-cancer enzyme L-glutaminase from Bacillus subtilis. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 5:96–105. Scholar
  40. Dykman LA, Khlebtsov NG (2017) Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. Chem Sci 8:1719–1735. Scholar
  41. Ethiraj S, Gopinath S (2017) Production, purification, characterization, immobilization, and application of Serrapeptase: a review. Front Biol 12:333–348. Scholar
  42. Eustis S, El-Sayed M (2005) Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study. J Phys Chem B 109:16350–16356. Scholar
  43. Faber K (1997) Biotransformations in organic chemistry: a textbook. Springer, Berlin. Scholar
  44. Gardea-Torresdey JL, Parsons JG, Gomez E, Peralta-Videa J, Troiani HE, Santiago P, Jose Yacaman M (2002) Formation and growth of Au nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants. Nano Lett 2:397–401. Scholar
  45. Ghosh S, Patil S, Ahire M, Kitture R, Gurav D, Jabgunde AM, Kale S, Pardesi K, Shinde V, Bellare V, Dhavale DD, Chopade BA (2012) Gnidia glauca flower extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and evaluation of its chemocatalytic potential. J. Nanobiotec 10:17. Scholar
  46. Giljohann DA, Seferos DS, Daniel WL, Massich MD, Patel PC, Mirkin CA (2010) Gold nanoparticles for biology and medicine. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:3280–3294. Scholar
  47. Golchin K, Golchin J, Ghaderi S, Alidadiani N, Eslamkhah S, Eslamkhah M, Davaran S, Akbarzadeh A (2018) Gold nanoparticles applications: from artificial enzyme till drug delivery. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 46:250–254. Scholar
  48. Gonzalez NJ, Isaacs LL (1999) Evaluation of pancreatic proteolytic enzyme treatment of adeno-carcinoma of the pancreas with nutrition and detoxification support. Nutr Cancer 33:117–124. Scholar
  49. Guo M, Li W, Yang F, Liu H (2015) Controllable biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract. Spectrochim Acta Part a Mol Biomol Spectrosc 142:73–79. Scholar
  50. Gupta A, Moyano DF, Parnsubsakul A, Papadopoulos A, Wang LS, Landis RF, Das R, Rotello VM (2016) Ultrastable and biofunctionalizable gold nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:14096–14101. Scholar
  51. Gurung N, Ray S, Bose S, Rai V (2013) A broader view: microbial enzymes and their relevance in industries, medicine, and beyond. BioMed Res Int 2013:329121, 18 pages. Scholar
  52. Hainfeld JF, Smilowitz HM, O'Connor MJ, Dilmanian FA, Slatkin DN (2013) Gold nanoparticle imaging and radiotherapy of brain tumors in mice. Nanomedicine (Lond) 8:1601–1609. Scholar
  53. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (2012) Free radicals in biology and medicine, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Scholar
  54. He W, Zhou Y-T, Wamer WG, Hu X, Wu X, Zheng Z, Boudreau MD, Yin JJ (2013) The Intrinsic catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles with respect to hydrogen peroxide decomposition and superoxide scavenging. Biomaterials 34:765–773. Scholar
  55. Herizchi R, Abbasi E, Milani M, Akbarzadeh A (2016) Current methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 44:596–602. Scholar
  56. Hong Y, Huh YM, Yoon DS, Yang J (2012) Nanobiosensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance for biomarker detection. J Nanomater 2012:759830, 13 pages. Scholar
  57. Hsia CH, Shen MC, Lin JS, Wen YK, Hwang KL, Cham TM (2009) Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects. Nutr Res 29:190–196. Scholar
  58. Huang X, El-Sayed MA (2010) Gold nanoparticles: Optical properties and implementations in cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. J Adv Res 1:13–28. Scholar
  59. Husseiny MI, El-Aziz MA, Badr Y, Mahmoud MA (2007) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 67:1003–1006. Scholar
  60. Hwang WS, Truong PL, Sim SJ (2012) Size-dependent plasmonic responses of single gold nanoparticles for analysis of biorecognition. Anal Biochem 421:213–218. Scholar
  61. Ikram-ul-Haq AS, Qadeer MA (2002) Biosynthesis of l-DOPA by Aspergillus oryzae. Bioresour Technol 85:25–29. Scholar
  62. Islam NU, Jalil K, Shahid M, Muhammad N, Rauf A (2015) Pistacia integerrima gall extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their biological activities. Arab J Chem (article in press). Scholar
  63. Jain R, Zaidi KU, Verma V, Saxena P (2012) L-Asparaginase: a promising enzyme for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. People’s J Sci Res 5:29–35. Scholar
  64. Jazayeri MH, Hamed A, Ali AP, Hamidreza P, Bijan S (2016) Various methods of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) conjugation to antibodies. Sens Biosensing Res 9:17–22. Scholar
  65. Kadri T, Cuprys A, Rouissi T, Brar SK, Daghrir R, Lauzon JM (2018) Nanoencapsulation and release study of enzymes from Alkanivorax borkumensis in chitosan-tripolyphosphate formulation. Biochem Eng J 137:1–10. Scholar
  66. Kalishwaralal K, Deepak V, Pandian SRK, Gurunathan S (2009) Biological synthesis of gold nanocubes from Bacillus licheniformis. Bioresour Technol 100:5356–5358. Scholar
  67. Kalishwaralal K, Deepak V, Pandian SBRK, Kottaisamy M, BMK S, Kartikeyan B, Gurunathan S (2010) Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Brevibacterium casei. Colloids Surf B 77:257–262. Scholar
  68. Kalpana D, Han JH, Park WS, Lee SM, Wahab R, Lee YS (2014) Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using torreya nucifera and their antibacterial activity. Arab J Chem (article in press). Scholar
  69. Kanwar SS, Verma ML (2010). Lipases, In Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology, Wiley Publishers, USA, pp 1–16.
  70. Kanwar SS, Kaushal RK, Verma ML, Kumar Y, Chauhan GS, Gupta R, Chimni SS (2005) Synthesis of ethyl laurate by hydrogel immobilized lipase of Bacillus coagulans MTCC-6375. Indian J Microbiol 45:187–193: Scholar
  71. Kanwar SS, Verma HK, Pathak S, Kaushal RK, Kumar Y, Verma ML, Chimni SS, Chauhan GS (2006) Enhancement of ethyl propionate synthesis by poly (AAc-co-HPMA-clMBAm)-immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-4713 exposed to Hg2+, and NH4+ ions. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 53:195–207. Scholar
  72. Kanwar SS, Verma ML, Maheshwari C, Chauhan S, Chimni SS, Chauhan GS (2007a) Properties of poly (AAc-co-HPMA-cl-EGDMA) hydrogel-bound lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-4713 and its use in synthesis of methyl acrylate. J Appl Polym Sci 104:183–191. Scholar
  73. Kanwar SS, Kaushal RK, Verma ML, Kumar Y, Azmi W, Gupta R, Chimni SS, Chauhan GS (2007b) Synthesis of ethyl oleate employing synthetic hydrogel-immobilized lipase of Bacillus coagulans MTCC-6375. Indian J Biotechnol 6:68–73. Scholar
  74. Kanwar SS, Gehlot S, Verma ML, Gupta R, Kumar Y, Chauhan GS (2008) Synthesis of geranyl butyrate employing poly (AAc-co-HPMA-cl-EGDMA) hydrogel-immobilized lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-4713. J Appl Polym Sci 110:2681–2692. Scholar
  75. Kaphle A, Nagaraju N, Daima HK (2018) Contemporary developments in nanobiotechnology: applications, toxicity, sustainability, and future perspective. In: Dhawan A, Singh S, Kumar A (eds) Nanobiotechnology: Human Health and the Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–34. Scholar
  76. Kaur R, Sekhon BS (2012) Enzymes as drugs: an overview. J Pharm Educ Res 3:29–41. Enzymes-as-Drugs-10.36.03-AMGoogle Scholar
  77. Khalil MMH, Ismail EH, El-Magdoub F (2012) Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using olive leaf extract. Arab J Chem 5:431–437. Scholar
  78. Kim SK, Rajapakse N (2005) Enzymatic production and biologicalactivities of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS): a review. Carbohydr Polym 62:357–368. Scholar
  79. Kim JH, Jang HH, Ryou SM, Kim S, Bae J, Lee K, Han MS (2010) A functionalized gold nanoparticles assisted universal carrier for antisense DNA. Chem commun 46:4151–4153. Scholar
  80. Kong FY, Zhang JW, Li RF, Wang ZX, Wang WJ, Wang W (2017) Unique roles of gold nanoparticles in drug delivery, targeting and imaging applications. Molecules 22:1445–1451. Scholar
  81. Krishnaraj C, Muthukumaran P, Ramachandran R, Balakumaran MD, Kalaichelvan PT (2014) Acalypha indica Linn: Biogenic synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells. Biotechnol Reports 4:42–49. Scholar
  82. Krishnaswamy K, Vali H, Orsat V (2014) Value-adding to grape waste: Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. J Food Eng 142:210–220. Scholar
  83. Kulkarni N, Muddapur U (2014) Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles: a review. J Nanotechnol:1–8. Scholar
  84. Kumar KP, Paul W, Sharma CP (2011a) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Zingiber officinale extract: characterization and blood compatibility. Proc Biochem 46:2007–2013. Scholar
  85. Kumar VG, Gokavarapu SD, Rajeswari A, Dhas TS, Karthick V, Kapadia Z, Shrestha T, Barathy IA, Roy A, Sinha S (2011b) Facile green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of antidiabetic potent Cassia auriculate. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 87:159–163. Scholar
  86. Kumar S, Jana AK, Dhamija I, Maiti M (2014a) Chitosan-assisted immobilization of serratiopeptidase on magnetic nanoparticles, characterization and its target delivery. J Drug Target 22:123–137. Scholar
  87. Kumar S, Jana AK, Maiti M, Dhamija I (2014b) Carbodiimide-mediated immobilization of serratiopeptidase on amino-, carboxyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and characterization for target delivery. J Nanopart Res 16:2233. Scholar
  88. Lee SH, Bae KH, Kim SH, Lee KR, Park TG (2008) Amine-functionalized gold nanoparticles as noncytotoxic and efficient intracellular siRNA delivery carriers. Int J Pharma 364:94–101. Scholar
  89. Lin J, Zhang H, Chen Z, Zheng Y (2010) Penetration of lipid membranes by gold nanoparticles: insights into cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and their relationship. ACS Nano 4:5421–5429. Scholar
  90. Lozano SV, Sepulveda TV, Torres EF (2012) Lipases production by solid fermentation: the case of Rhizopusho mothallicus in perlite. Methods Mol Biol 861:227–237. Scholar
  91. Maji SK, Mandal AK, Nguyen KT, Borah P, Zhao Y (2015) Cancer cell detection and therapeutics using peroxidase-active nanohybrid of gold nanoparticle-loaded mesoporous silica-coated graphene. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:9807–9816. Scholar
  92. Malarkodi C, Rajeshkumar S, Vanaja M, Paulkuman K, Gnanajobitha G, Annadurai G (2013) Eco-friendly synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Nanostruct Chem 3:1–7. Scholar
  93. Malda ET, Olangua L, Asensio AC, Arzamendi G, Gandía LM, Moran JF (2010) Gold nanoparticle-sod enzyme conjugates for therapeutic applications. NanoSpain 2010, 23-26 March, 2010 Malaga-Spain, Poster presentation.
  94. Mane P, Tale V (2015) Overview of microbial therapeutic enzymes. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4:17–26. Scholar
  95. Manikandan R, Manikandan B, Raman T, Arunagirinathan K, Prabhu NM, Basu MJ, Perumal M, Palanisamy S, Munusamy A (2014) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 138C:120–129. Scholar
  96. Marcelo G, Kaplan E, Tarazona MP, Mendicuti F (2015) Interaction of gold nanoparticles with doxorubicin mediated by supramolecular chemistry. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 128:237–244. Scholar
  97. Ming M, Kuroiwa T, Ichikawa S et al (2006) Production of chitosan oligosaccharides by chitosanase directly immobilized on an agar gel coated multi disk impeller. Biochem Eng J 28:289–294. Scholar
  98. Mirza AZ, Shamshad H (2011) Preparation and characterization of doxorubicin functionalized gold nanoparticles. Eur J Med Chem 46:1857–1860. Scholar
  99. Mittal AK, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC (2013) Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotechnol Adv 31:346–356. Scholar
  100. MohanKumar K, Mandal BK, Kiran Kumar HA, Maddinedi SB (2013) Green synthesis of size controllable gold nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta-Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 116:539–545. Scholar
  101. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK (2008) Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications. J Nanopart Res 10:507–517. Scholar
  102. Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2002) Extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Chem Biol Chem 3:461–463. 10.1002/1439-7633(20020503)3:5<461::AID-CBIC461>3.0.CO;2-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mukherjee P, Roy M, Mandal BP, Dey GK, Mukherjee PK, Ghatak J, Tyagi AK, Kale SP (2008) Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum. Nanotechnology 19:075103. Scholar
  104. Muthurasu A, Ganesh V (2016) Glucose oxidase stabilized fluorescent gold nanoparticles as an ideal sensor matrix for dual mode sensing of glucose. RSC Advances 6:7212–7223. Scholar
  105. Muthuvel A, Adavallan K, Balamurugan K, Krishnakumar N (2014) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Solanum nugrum leaf extract and screening their free radical scavenging and antibacterial Properties. Biomed Prev Nutr 4:325–332. Scholar
  106. Nangia Y, Nishima W, Nisha G, Shekhawat G, Suri CR (2009) A novel bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as living factory for synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Microb Cell Fact 8:39–46. Scholar
  107. Narayanan KB, Sakthivel N (2008) Coriander leaf mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. Mater Lett 62:4588–4590. Scholar
  108. Narayanan K, Sakthivel N (2010) Phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of Coleus amboinicus Lour. Mater Charact 61:1232–1238. Scholar
  109. Nasrabadi HT, Abbasi E, Davaran S, Kouhi M, Akbarzadeh A (2016) Bimetallic nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and biomedical applications. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 44:376–380. Scholar
  110. Nazir S, Hussain T, Ayub A, Rashid U, MacRobert AJ (2014) Nanomaterials in combating cancer: therapeutic applications and developments. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 10:19–34. Scholar
  111. Nilofar YN, Shivangi SK (2016) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Bacillus marisflavi and its potential in catalytic dye degradation. Arabian J Chem (article in press). Scholar
  112. Noruzi M, Zare D, Khoshnevisan K, Davoodi D (2011) Rapid green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Rosa hybrida petal extract at room temperature. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 79:1461–1465. Scholar
  113. Ogi T, Saitoh N, Nomura T, Konishi Y (2010) Room-temperature synthesis of gold nanoparticles and nanoplates using Shewanella algae cell extract. J. Nanopart Res 12:2531–2539. Scholar
  114. Okafor N (2007) Biocatalysis: Immobilized enzymes and immobilized cells. Modern Ind Microbiol Biotechnol:398.
  115. Ozcan C, Ergun O, Celik A, Corduk N, Ozok G (2002) Enzymatic debridement of burn wound with collagenase in children with partial-thickness burns. Burns 28:791–794. Scholar
  116. Para G, Rifai S, Baratti J (1984) Production of L-DOPA from pyrocatechol and DL-serine by bioconversion using immobilized Erwinia herbicola cells. Biotechnol Lett 6:703–708. Scholar
  117. Parida UK, Bindhani BK, Nayak P (2011) Green synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using onion (Allium cepa) extract. World J Nano Sci Eng 1:93–98. Scholar
  118. Patra S, Mukherjee S, Barui AK, Ganguly A, Sreedhar B, Patra CR (2015) Green synthesis, characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles and their potential application for cancer therapeutics. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 53:298–309. Scholar
  119. Patrizia DP, Nunzia C, Carmelina DA, Lupo G, Antonio M, Diego La M, Cristina S (2017) Immobilization of neurotrophin peptides on gold nanoparticles by direct and lipid-mediated interaction: a new multipotential therapeutic nanoplatform for CNS Disorders. ACS Omega 2:4071–4079. Scholar
  120. Paul B, Bhuyan B, Dhar Purkayastha D, Dey M, Dhar SS (2015) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Pogestemon benghalensis (B) O. Ktz. leaf extract and studies of their photocatalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue. Mater Lett 148:37–40. Scholar
  121. Peer D, Karp JM, Hong S, Farokhzad OC, Margalit R, Langer R (2007) Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nature Nanotechnol 2:751–760. Scholar
  122. Pelaz B, Alexiou C, Alvarez-Puebla RA, Alves F, Andrews AM, Ashraf S et al (2017) Diverse applications of nanomedicine. ACS Nano 11:2313–2381. Scholar
  123. Peterson RE, Ciegler A (1969) L-Asparaginase production by various bacteria. Appl Microbiol. 17:929-930. DOI: applmicro00006-0167Google Scholar
  124. Philip D (2010) Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Phys E Low Dimens Syst Nanostruct 42:1417–1424. Scholar
  125. Philip D, Unni C (2011) Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf. Physica E Low dimens Syst Nanostruct 43:1318–1322. Scholar
  126. Philip D, Unni C, Aromal SA, Vidhu VK (2011) Murraya Koenigii leaf assisted rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 78:899–904. Scholar
  127. Pietro PD, Caporarello N, Anfuso CD, Lupo G, Magrì A, Mendola DL, Satriano C (2017) Immobilization of neurotrophin peptides on gold nanoparticles by direct and lipid-mediated interaction: a new multipotential therapeutic nanoplatform for CNS disorders. ACS Omega 2:4071–4079. Scholar
  128. Pissuwan D, Cortie CH, Valenzuela SM, Cortie MB (2007) Gold nanosphere-antibody conjugates for hyperthermal therapeutic applications. Gold Bulletin 40:121–129. Scholar
  129. Puri M, Barrow CJ, Verma ML (2013) Enzyme immobilization on nanomaterials for biofuel production. Trends Biotechnol 31:215–216. Scholar
  130. Raju D, Vishwakarma RK, Khan BM, Mehta UJ, Ahmad A (2014) Biological synthesis of cationic gold nanoparticles and binding of plasmid DNA. Mater Lett 129:159–161. Scholar
  131. Rawat P, Rajput YS, Bharti MK, Sharma R (2016) A method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using 1-amino-2- naphthol-4-sulphonic acid as reducing agent. Curr Sci 110:2297–2300. Scholar
  132. Reddy AS, Chen CY, Chen CC, Jean JS, Chen HR, Tseng MJ, Fan CW, Wang JC (2010) Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 10:6567–6574. Scholar
  133. Reddy V, Torati RS, Oh S, Kim CG (2013) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles assisted by Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. Fruit pericarp and their catalytic application for the reduction of p-nitroaniline. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:556–564. Scholar
  134. Sabu A (2003) Sources, properties and applications of microbial therapeutic enzymes. Indian J Biotechnol 2:334–341. Scholar
  135. Sabu A, Chandrasekaran M, Pandey A (2000) Biopotential of microbial glutaminases. Chem Today 18:21–25. Scholar
  136. Sabu A, Nampoothiri KM, Pandey A (2005) L-glutaminase as a therapeutic enzyme of microbial origin. Microbial enzymes and biotransformations. Series: Methods Biotechnol 17:75–90. Scholar
  137. Sadeghi B (2015) Zizyphus mauritiana extract-mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity. J Nanostruct Chem 5:265–273. Scholar
  138. Salamone P, Wodzinski R (1997) Production, purification and characterization of a 50-kDa extracellular metalloprotease from Serratia marcescens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48:317–321. Scholar
  139. Senoudi AR, Chabane Sari SM, Hakem IF (2014) Analysis of the evolution of tannic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles using mie theory. Int J Anal Chem 2014:832657, 6 pages. Scholar
  140. Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004a) Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:496–502. Scholar
  141. Shankar SS, Rai A, Ankamwar B, Singh A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004b) Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms. Nat Mater 3:482–488. Scholar
  142. Shankar S, Soni SK, Daima HK, Selvakannan PR, Khire JM, Bhargava SK, Bansal V (2015) Charge-switchable gold nanoparticles for enhanced enzymatic thermostability. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17:21517–21524. Scholar
  143. Sharma A, Matharu Z, Sumana G, Solanki PR, Kim GC, Malhotra BD (2010) Antibody immobilized cysteamine functionalized-gold nanoparticles for aflatoxin detection. Thin Solid Films 159:1213–1218. Scholar
  144. Sharma N, Pinnaka AK, Raje M, Ashish FN, Bhattacharyya MS, Choudhury AR (2012) Exploitation of marine bacteria for production of gold nanoparticles. Microb Cell Fact 11:86. Scholar
  145. Sharma B, Singh S, Kanwar SS (2014a) L-methionase: a therapeutic enzyme to treat malignancies. BioMed Res Inter 2014:506287, 13 pages. Scholar
  146. Sharma TK, Ramanathan R, Weerathunge P, Mohammadtaheri M, Daima HK, Shukla R, Bansal V (2014b) Aptamer-mediated ‘turn-off/turn-on’ nanozyme activity of gold nanoparticles for kanamycin detection. Chem Commun 50:15856–15859. Scholar
  147. Sharma N, Bhatt G, Kothiyal P (2015) Gold nanoparticles synthesis, properties, and forthcoming applications-a review. Indian J Pharm Biol Res 3:13–27. 138e/80a3b1e9d936325a8cb50ef8338cf0e544ebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shiying H, Zhirui G, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Wang J, Ning G (2007) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using the bacteria Rhodopseudomonas capsulate. Mater Lett 61:3984–3987. Scholar
  149. Singaravelu G, Arockiamary JS, Kumar VG, Govindaraju K (2007) A novel extracellular synthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles using marine alga, Sargassum wightii Greville. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 57:97–101. Scholar
  150. Singh C, Sharma V, Naik PKR, Singh H (2011) A green biogenic approach for synthesis of gold and silver. Dig. J Nanomater Biostructures 6:535-542. DOI: 4c1a/58006bd0ce11a8d3ed4de0b1d634b48b7507Google Scholar
  151. Singh M, Kalaivani R, Manikandan S, Sangeetha N, Kumaraguru AK (2013) Facile green synthesis of variable metallic gold nanoparticle using Padina gymnospora, a brown marine macroalga. Appl Nanosci 3:145–151. Scholar
  152. Singh R, Kumar M, Mittal A, Mehta PK (2016) Microbial enzymes: industrial progress in 21st century. 3 Biotech 6:174. Scholar
  153. Siti RM, Khairunisak AR, Azlan AZ, Rahmah N (2013) Green synthesis of 10 nm gold nanoparticles via seeded-growth method and its conjugation properties on lateral flow immunoassay. Adv Mater Res 686:8–12. Scholar
  154. Skumar S, Abdulhameed S (2017) Therapeutic Enzymes. Biores bioprocess Biotechnol 2:45–73. Scholar
  155. Smithaa SL, Philip D, Gopchandrana KG (2009) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 74:735–739. Scholar
  156. Song JY, Jang HK, Kim BS (2009) Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf extracts. Process Biochem 44:1133–1138. Scholar
  157. Spiers ASD, Wade HE (1976) Bacterial glutaminase in treatment of acute leukaemia. Br Med J 1:1317–1319. Scholar
  158. Sujitha MV, Kannan S (2013) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using citrus fruits Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis aqueous extract and its characterization. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 102:15–23. Scholar
  159. Suman TY, Rajasree SRR, Ramkumar R, Rajthilak C, Perumal P (2014) The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 118:11–16. Scholar
  160. Sumi H et al (1987) A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet. Experientia 43:1110–1111. Scholar
  161. Sun L, Liu K, Wang Z (2008) Functional gold nanoparticlepeptide complexes as cell-targeting agents. Langmuir 24:10293–10297. Scholar
  162. Tabata K, Ikeda H, Hashimoto S (2005) ywfE in Bacillus subtilis codes for a novel enzyme, L-amino acid ligase. J Bacteriol 187:5195–5202. Scholar
  163. Tahir K, Nazir S, Li B, Khan AU, Khan ZUH, Gong PY, Khan SU, Ahmad A (2015) Nerium oleander leaves extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antioxidant activity. Mater Lett 156:198–201. Scholar
  164. Tamuly C, Hazarika M, Borah SC, Das MR, Boruah MP (2013a) In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 1:627–634. Scholar
  165. Tamuly C, Hazarika M, Bordoloi M (2013b) Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles by Gymnocladus assamicus and its catalytic activity. Mater Lett 108:276–279. Scholar
  166. Tao Y, Ju E, Ren J, Qu X (2015) Bifunctionalized mesoporous silica-supported gold nanoparticles: intrinsic oxidase and peroxidase catalytic activities for antibacterial applications. Adv Mater 27:1097–1104. Scholar
  167. Teal AR, Wymer PEO (1991) Enzymes and their role in Biotechnology. The Biochemical Society, London. Scholar
  168. Terkeltaub R (2009) Gout: novel therapies for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. Arthritis Res Ther 11:236. Scholar
  169. Thadathil N, Velappan SP (2014) Recent developments in chitosanase research and its biotechnological applications: a review. Food Chem 150:392–399. Scholar
  170. Tkachenko AG, Xie H, Liu Y, Coleman D, Ryan J, Glomm WR, Shipton MK, Franzen S, Feldheim DL (2004) Cellular trajectories of peptide-modified gold particle complexes: comparison of nuclear localization signals and peptide transduction domains. Bioconjugate Chem 15:482–490. Scholar
  171. Turkevich J, Stevenson PC, Hillier J (1951) Nucleation and growth process in the synthesis of colloidal gold. Discuss Faraday Soc 11:55–75. Scholar
  172. Ul N, Jalil K, Shahid M, Rauf A, Muhammad N, Khan A, Shah MR, Khan MA (2015) Green synthesis and biological activities of gold nanoparticles functionalized with Salix alba. Arabian J Chem: Scholar
  173. Underkofler LA, Barton RR, Rennert SS (1957) Production of microbial enzymes and their applications. Appl Microbiol, 6:212–221.
  174. Vahabi K, Mansoori GA, Karimi S (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by fungus Trichoderma Reesei (a route for large-scale production of AgNPs). Insciences J 1:65–79. Scholar
  175. Vakili B, Nezafat N, Negahdaripour M, Yari M, Zare B, Ghasemi Y (2017) Staphylokinase enzyme: an overview of structure, function and engineered forms. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 18:1026–1037. Scholar
  176. Velasco-Lozano S, López-Gallego F, Mateos-Díaz JC, Favela-Torres E (2016) Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) in enzyme improvement – a review. Biocatalysis 1:66–177. Scholar
  177. Vellard M (2003) The enzyme as drug: application of enzymes as pharmaceuticals. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14:444–450. Scholar
  178. Venkatpurwar VP, Pokharkar VB (2010) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using therapeutic enzyme: in-vitro and in-vivo efficacy study. J Biomed Nanotech 6:667–674. Scholar
  179. Verma ML (2017a) Fungus-mediated bioleaching of metallic nanoparticles from agro-industrial by-products. In: Prasad R (ed) Fungal Nanotechnology. Fungal Biology. Springer, Cham. Scholar
  180. Verma ML (2017b) Critical evaluation of toxicity tests in context to engineered nanomaterials: An introductory overview. In: Kumar V, Dasgupta N, Ranjan S (eds) Nanotoxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Scholar
  181. Verma ML (2017c) Enzymatic nanobiosensors in the agricultural and food industry. In: Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Lichtfouse E (eds) Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 4. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, vol 24. Springer, Cham. Scholar
  182. Verma ML (2017d) Nanobiotechnology advances in enzymatic biosensors for the agri-food industry. Environ Chem Lett 15:555–560. Scholar
  183. Verma ML, Barrow CJ (2015) Recent advances in feedstocks and enzyme-immobilised technology for effective transesterification of lipids into biodiesel. In: Kalia V (ed) Microbial Factories. Springer, New Delhi. Scholar
  184. Verma ML, Kanwar SS (2010) Purification and characterization of a low molecular mass alkaliphilic lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 57:187–201. Scholar
  185. Verma ML, Kanwar SS (2012) Harnessing the potential of thermophiles: The variants of extremophiles. Dyn Biochem Process Biotechnol Mol Biol 6:28–39. Scholar
  186. Verma ML, Azmi W, Kanwar SS (2009) Synthesis of ethyl acetate employing celite-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 56:229–242. Scholar
  187. Verma ML, Azmi W, Kanwar SS (2011) Enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl acetate catalysed by immobilized Bacillus cereus lipase in organic medium. Enzyme Res 2011:919386, 7 pages. Scholar
  188. Verma ML, Barrow CJ, Kennedy JF, Puri M (2012) Immobilization of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis on functionalized silicon dioxide nanoparticles: Characterization and lactose hydrolysis. Int J Biol Macromol 50:432–437. Scholar
  189. Verma ML, Rajkhowa R, Barrow CJ, Wang X, Puri M (2013a) Exploring novel ultrafine Eri silk bioscaffold for enzyme stabilisation in cellobiose hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 145:302–306. Scholar
  190. Verma ML, Naebe M, Barrow CJ, Puri M (2013b) Enzyme immobilisation on amino-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Structural and biocatalytic characterisation. PLoS One 8:e73642. Scholar
  191. Verma ML, Chaudhary R, Tsuzuki T, Barrow CJ, Puri M (2013c) Immobilization of β-glucosidase on a magnetic nanoparticle improves thermostability: Application in cellobiose hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 135:2–6. Scholar
  192. Verma ML, Barrow CJ, Puri M (2013d) Nanobiotechnology as a novel paradigm for enzyme immobilization and stabilisation with potential applications in biofuel production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:23–39. Scholar
  193. Verma ML, Puri M, Barrow CJ (2016) Recent trends in nanomaterials immobilised enzymes for biofuel production. Critical Rev Biotechnol 36:108–119. Scholar
  194. Vinod VTP, Saravanan P, Sreedhar B, Keerthi Devi D, Sashidhar RB (2011) A facile synthesis and characterization of Ag, Au and Pt nanoparticles using a natural hydrocolloid gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium). Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 83:291–298. Scholar
  195. Wu W, Huang J, Wu L, Sun D, Lin L et al (2013) Two-step size- and shape-separation of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. Sep Purif Technol 106:117–122. Scholar
  196. Xie J, Lee JY, Wang DI, Ting YP (2007) Identification of active biomolecules in the high-yield synthesis of single-crystalline gold nanoplates in algal solutions. Small 3:672–682. Scholar
  197. Xin Y, Yin M, Zhao L, Meng F, Luo L (2017) Recent progress on nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Cancer Biol Med 14:228–241. Scholar
  198. Yang N, WeiHong L, Hao L (2014) Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using agricultural waste mango peel extract and its in vitro cytotoxic effect on two normal cells. Mater Lett 134:67–70. Scholar
  199. Yari M, Ghoshoon MB, Vakili B, Ghasemi Y (2017) Therapeutic enzymes: applications and approaches to pharmacological improvement. Curr J Pharma Biotechnol 18:531–540. Scholar
  200. Yeh CS, Cheng FY, Huang CC (2012) Bioconjugation of noble metal nanoparticles and their applications to biolabeling and bioimaging. In: Lai-Kwan C, Chang HT, from Bioimaging to Biosensors: Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Biodetection Scholar
  201. Yu JJ, Park KB, Kim SG, Oh SH (2013) Expression, purification, and biochemical properties of arginase from Bacillus subtilis 168. J Microbiol 51:222–228. Scholar
  202. Yu X, Jiao Y, Chai Q (2016) Applications of gold nanoparticles in biosensors. Nano LIFE 6:11. Scholar
  203. Zaidi KU, Ali AS, Ali SA, Naaz I (2014) Microbial tyrosinases: promising enzymes for pharmaceutical, food bioprocessing, and environmental industry. Biochem Res Int 2014:854687, 16 pages. Scholar
  204. Zaitsev S, Spitzer D, Murciano JC (2010) Sustained thrombo prophylaxis mediated by an rbc-targeted pro-urokinase zymogen activated at the site of clot formation. Blood 115:5241–5248. Scholar
  205. Zhang H, Sang Q, Zhang W (2012) Statistical optimization of chitosanase production by Aspergillus sp. QD-2 in submerged fermentation. Ann of Microbiol 62:193–201. Scholar
  206. Zhang M, Cheng F, Gan F (2015) Electrochemical nitrite nanosensor based on Au nanoparticles/graphene nanocomposites. Int J Electrochem Sci 10:5905–5913. Scholar
  207. Zhao H, Wang Z, Jiao X, Zhang L, Lv Y (2012) Uricase-based highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric determination of uric acid using BSA-stabilized Au nanoclusters as an artificial enzyme. Spectroscopy Lett 45:511–519. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madan L. Verma
    • 1
  • Pankaj Kumar
    • 2
  • Sneh Sharma
    • 2
  • Karuna Dhiman
    • 2
  • Deepka Sharma
    • 2
  • Aruna Verma
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Chemistry and BiotechnologyDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyDr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and ForestryNauniIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiosciencesHimachal Pradesh UniversityShimlaIndia

Personalised recommendations