Applications of Emulsifiers in Baked Foods

  • Frank Orthoefer
  • Dennis Kim


The largest users of food emulsifiers are used in bakery products. The quantity is about 50% or 400 million pounds/year with 2–4% growth per year. Emulsifiers are used in bread formulas to improve dough handling and the product’s overall quality. This results in improvements in machinability, shelf life and loaf volume. Emulsifiers have two major functions in yeast-raised products: dough conditioning/strengthening; and shelf life extension, or “crumb softening.” Other terms for shortenings can include “shortening”, surfactants, and compound shortenings. The composition of bakery products has progressed from natural fats to oil blends as well as trait modified oils, eliminating the hydrogenated and hard fats. Emulsifiers are surface active agents and are synonymous with the term surfactants and can be used interchangeably in literature. Emulsifying agents are chemical compounds capable of promoting emulsions or stabilization of emulsions by their effect on interfacial tension. As the trend continues toward healthier products that contain less fat, sugar and sodium, more fiber and no bromate, emulsifiers will play an important role as functional ingredients in baked goods.


Food Emulsifiers Bakery products Surface active agents Wheat flour composition Dough handling Loaf volume Approved food emulsifiers Trait modified oils Sorbitan Anionic emulsifiers Polyhydric emulsifiers Lecithin Crumb softening Fat free bakery Trans free bakery 



Thanks to Serena Wu for help with graphics in this chapter.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Orthoefer
    • 1
  • Dennis Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Lenoir CityUSA
  2. 2.Mondelez InternationalEast HanoverUSA

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