Zhu Xi and the Five Masters of Northern Song

  • Kai-chiu NgEmail author
Part of the Dao Companions to Chinese Philosophy book series (DCCP, volume 13)


In the history of philosophy, it is not novel that even the most original thinkers, such as the founders of various schools of thoughts, still bear the ideological elements of some antecedent thinkers. In other words, regardless of how avant-garde their thinking is and the outstanding qualities of their philosophical breakthroughs, to a certain extent, they are still synthesizers. Taking Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130–1200) as one of the prominent examples, what he achieved is the most influential synthesis throughout the history of traditional Chinese philosophy.


  1. Adler, Joseph A. 2014. Reconstructing the Confucian Dao: Zhu Xi’s Appropriation of Zhou Dunyi. Albany: State University of New York Press. (A newly published book providing detailed and original analysis of Zhu Xi’s interpretation and appropriation of Zhou Dunyi.)Google Scholar
  2. Chan, Wing-tsit. 1969. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. (A celebrated classic anthology of Chinese philosophical texts with the editor’s influential translations.)Google Scholar
  3. Chan, Wing-tsit 陳榮捷. 1988. Collected Papers of the Study of Zhu Xi 朱學論集, 2nd ed. Taipei 臺北: Taiwan xiusheng shuju 臺灣學生書局.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, Lai 陳來. 2003. Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism 宋明理學, 2nd ed. Shanghai 上海: East China Normal University Press 華東師範大學出版社. (A concise and classic introductory book of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism.)Google Scholar
  5. Cheng, Hao 程顥, and Cheng Yi 程頤. 2004. Collection of the Two Chengs 二程集. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  6. Gardner, Daniel K., trans. 1990. Learning to Be a Sage: Selection from the Conversations of Master Chu, Arranged Topically. Berkeley: University of California Press. (The largest-scale translation of Zhu Xi’s Classified Sayings [Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類] to date.)Google Scholar
  7. ———., trans. 2007. The Four Books: The Basic Teachings of the Later Confucian Tradition. Indianapolis: Hackett.Google Scholar
  8. Graham, A. C. 1958. Two Chinese Philosophers: Cheng Ming-tao and Cheng Yi-ch’uan. London: Lund Humphries.Google Scholar
  9. Johnston, Ian, and Wang Ping, trans. 2012. Daxue and Zhongyong: Bilingual Edition. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kim, Yung Sik. 2000. The Natural Philosophy of Chu Hsi. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. (A stimulating study of some neglected aspects of Zhu Xi’s philosophy, such as his view of number.)Google Scholar
  11. Lau, D. C., trans 2000. The Analects. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  12. ———., trans 2003. Mencius, revised ed. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Lin, Lechang 林樂昌. 2016. Study of Zhang Zai’s Neo-Confucianism and Works 張載理學與文獻探研. Beijing 北京: Renmin chubanshe 人民出版社. (A representative new study of Zhang Zai in mainland China which is sufficiently free from the official ideology in the past decades.)Google Scholar
  14. Liu, Jeeloo. 2017. Neo-Confucianism: Metaphysics, Mind, and Morality. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (The latest monograph of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism in the Anglophone academia.)Google Scholar
  15. Mou, Zongsan. 1968–1969. Mind-Substance and Nature-Substance 心體與性體, vols. 1 and 3. Taipei 臺北: Zhengzhong shuju 正中書局. (A three-volume magnum opus with very deep philosophical discussions of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism signals the breakthrough of the field.)Google Scholar
  16. Qian, Mu 錢穆. 2001. Public Talks on Chinese Thought 中國思想通俗講話. Taipei 臺北: Lantai Chubanshe 蘭台出版社. (A popular but inspiring small book introducing traditional Chinese thought through a series of common Chinese words.)Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2011. New Scholarly Record of Zhu Xi 朱子新學案, 5 vols. Beijing 北京: Jiuzhou chubanshe 九州出版社. (An irreplaceable classic of Zhu Xi study classifying the philosopher’s significant sayings and writings into a number of categories.)Google Scholar
  18. Smith, Kidder, Jr., and Don J. Wyatt. 1990. “Shao Yung and Number.” In Kidder Smith, Jr., Peter K. Bol, Joseph A. Adler, and Don J. Wyatt, eds., Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (A concise analysis of Shao Yong’s thought of number.)Google Scholar
  19. Tiwald, Justin, and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds. 2014. Readings in Later Chinese Philosophy: Han Dynasty to the 20th Century. Cambridge, MA: Hackett.Google Scholar
  20. Wyatt, Don J. 1985. “Chu Hsi’s Critique of Shao Yung: One Instance of the Stand Against Fatalism.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 45.2: 649–66. (A short article clearly illustrates the rationale of Zhu Xi’s critique of Shao Yong.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhu, Xi 朱熹. 1994a. Zhu Xi’s Classified Sayings 朱子語類. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Book Company 中華書局.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 1994b. The Verses, Sections, and Combined Commentaries on the Four Books 四書章句集注. Taipei 臺北: Da’an chubanshe 大安出版社.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2001. Some Questions on the Four Books 四書或問. Shanghai 上海: Shanghai guji chubanshe 上海古籍出版社; Anhui jiaoyu chubanshe 安徽教育出版社.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2010. Zhu Xi’s Collected Papers 晦庵先生朱文公文集. In Zhu Xi’s Complete Works 朱子全書, revised ed., edited by Zhu Jieren 朱傑人, Yan Zuozhi 嚴佐之, and Liu Yongxiang 劉永翔, vols. 20–25. Shanghai 上海: Shanghai guji chubanshe 上海古籍出版社; Anhui jiaoyu chubanshe 安徽教育出版社.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations