Advertisement

Zhu Xi and Later Neo-Confucians

  • Zemian ZhengEmail author
Chapter
  • 26 Downloads
Part of the Dao Companions to Chinese Philosophy book series (DCCP, volume 13)

Abstract

This chapter surveys Zhu Xi’s influence in the Chinese intellectual histories of the Song, Ming and Qing dynasties, and offers an introduction to the major criticisms of Zhu Xi provided by the most representative later Confucians in three stages: (1) Ming Confucians’ criticisms of his way of selfcultivation and moral psychology (represented by Wang Yangming), (2) Ming–Qing Confucians’ criticisms of his “dualistic” metaphysics of li–qi (represented by Wang Fuzhi), and (3) Dai Zhen and Qing Confucians’ criticisms of Zhu Xi’s ethics and of ideological misuses of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism.

References

  1. Chan, Wing-tsit. 1963. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Chen, Chun 陳淳. 1986. Neo-Confucian Terms Explained 北溪字義. Translated by Chan Wing-tsit. New York: Columbia University Press. (A concise exposition of the philosophical terms used by the author’s master, Zhu Xi.)Google Scholar
  3. Chen, Lai 陳來. 2000. Research on Zhu Xi’s Philosophy 朱子哲學研究. Shanghai 上海: Huadong Shifan Daxue Chubanshe 華東師範大學出版社. (A comprehensive research on Zhu Xi’s philosophy, based on his study of the chronology of Zhu Xi’s text.)Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2004. Interpretation and Reconstruction: The Spirit of Wang Chuanshan’s Philosophy 詮釋與重建:王船山的哲學精神. Beijing 北京: Peking University Press 北京大學出版社. (A study that stresses Wang Fuzhi’s continuation, rather than criticism, of the tradition of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism.)Google Scholar
  5. Chen, Xianzhang 陳獻章. 1987. Works of Chen Xianzhang 陳獻章集. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  6. Cheng, Chung-yi (Zheng, Zongyi) 鄭宗義. 2000. The Transformation of Confucianism Between Ming and Qing Dynasty: From Liu Jishan to Dai Dongyuan 明清儒學轉型探析:從劉蕺山到戴東原. Hong Kong 香港: Zhongwen Daxue Chubanshe 中文大學出版社. (A study of the monistic tendency from late Ming to Qing period as a response to the School of Wang Yangming in metaphysics, ethics and methodology of scholarship.)Google Scholar
  7. Cheng, Hao 程顥, and Cheng Yi 程頤. 2004. Works of the Two Cheng Brothers 二程集. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  8. Chin, Ann-ping, and Mansfield Freeman, trans. 1990. Tai Chen on Mencius: Explorations in Words and Meanings. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dai, Zhen 戴震. 1991. Complete Works of Dai Zhen 戴震全集, vol. 1. Beijing 北京: Tsinghua University Press 清華大學出版社.Google Scholar
  10. de Bary, Wm. Theodore, and Irene Bloom, eds. 1999. Sources of Chinese Tradition. 2nd edition. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Duan, Yucai 段玉裁. 1981. Commentary on Explication of Written Characters 說文解字注. Shanghai 上海: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe 上海古籍出版社. (An extremely important classic for the etymological study of Chinese characters.)Google Scholar
  12. Hou, Wailu 侯外廬, Qiu Hansheng 邱漢生, and Zhang Qizhi 張豈之, eds. 1984. A History of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism. Beijing 北京: Renmen Chubanshe 人民出版社. (A detailed study of the whole span of the history of later Confucianism by a group of scholars lead by Hou Wailu, who represented the approach of research on Neo-Confucianism from the perspective of Marxist historical materialism.)Google Scholar
  13. Huang, Yong. 2017. “Knowing-that, Knowing-how, or Knowing-to?: Wang Yangming’s Conception of Moral Knowledge (Liangzhi).” Journal of Philosophical Research 42: 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang, Zongxi 黃宗羲. 1985. Scholarly Records of Ming Confucians 明儒學案. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 1992. Scholarly Records of Song–Yuan Confucians (Part IV) 宋元學案(四). In Complete Works of Huang Zongxi (6 vols.) 黃宗羲全集(第六冊). Hangzhou 杭州: Zhejiang Guji Chubanshe 浙江古籍出版社.Google Scholar
  16. Jiao, Xun 焦循. 1936. Collected Works of Jiao Xun 雕菰集. Shanghai 上海: Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館.Google Scholar
  17. Li, Zhi 李贄. 2000. Collected Works of Li Zhi 李贄文集. Beijing 北京: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe 社會科學文獻出版社.Google Scholar
  18. Liu, Jeeloo. 2010. “Wang Fuzhi’s Philosophy of Principle (Li) Inherent in Qi,” In John Makeham, ed., Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy (355–380). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu, Shu-hsien 劉述先. 1986. A Study of Huang Zongxi’s Learning of the Heart/mind 黃宗羲心學的定位. Taipei 臺北: Yunchen Wenhua Gongsi 允晨文化公司. (A research on Huang Zongxi that treats him as a follower of Wang Yangming, and as the last master of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism.)Google Scholar
  20. ———. 1995. The Development and Completion of Zhu Xi’s Philosophical Thought 朱子哲學思想的發展與完成. Taipei 臺北: Taiwan Xuesheng Shuju 臺灣學生書局. (A detailed research on the development of Zhu Xi’s thought, drawing on Mou Zongsan’s philosophical insight and Qian Mu’s chronological study of Zhu Xi.)Google Scholar
  21. Lu, Jiuyuan. 1980. Works of Lu Jiuyuan 陸九淵集. Beijing北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  22. Luo, Qinshun 羅欽順. 1990. Knowledge Painfully Acquired 困知記. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  23. Mou, Zongsan 牟宗三. 1968. Metaphysical Mind and Metaphysical Nature 心體與性體. Taipei 臺北: Zhengzhong Shuju 正中書局. (An influential research on Neo-Confucianism from Zhou Dunyi to Zhu Xi, famous both for his comparative study between Kant and Confucianism, and for his uncharitable critique of Zhu Xi’s alleged distortion of the philosophical spirit of Mencius and his Northern Song masters.)Google Scholar
  24. Qian, Mu 錢穆. 1994. New Learning Record of Zhu Xi 朱子新學案. Taipei 臺北: Lianjing Chuban Shiye Gongsi 聯經出版事業公司. (A research on Zhu Xi with extensive quotations of Zhu Xi’s text sorted by topics and key terms.)Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1997. A History of Chinese Scholarship of the Last Three Hundred Years 中國近三百年學術史. Beijing 北京: Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館. (An influential research on the intellectual history from late Ming to late Qing period, very useful for scholars who are interested in the relationships and interactions among neo-Confucians and their intellectual background.)Google Scholar
  26. ———. 1998. An Outline of Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism 宋明理學概述. Taipei 臺北: Lianjing Chuban Shiye Gongsi 聯經出版事業公司. (A very concise introduction to Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism.)Google Scholar
  27. Shu, Jingnan 束景南. 2003. Biography of Master Zhu 朱子大傳. Beijing 北京: Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館. (the most comprehensive and detailed biography of Zhu Xi, drawing not only on the text of traditional compilation of Zhu Xi’s work, but also on historical local records, clarifying a number of misunderstandings.)Google Scholar
  28. Tang Chun-i (Tang, Junyi) 唐君毅. 1970. “The Development of the Concept of Moral Mind from Wang Yang-ming to Wang Chi.” In Wm. Theodore de Bary, ed., Self and Society in Ming Thought (93–119). New York/London: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 1984. On Chinese Philosophy: Tracing Teaching to its Source 中國哲學原論:原教篇. Taipei臺北: Xuesheng shuju 學生書局. (a research on the history of Neo-Confucian thought from early Song to Qing. Compared with Mou’s harsh criticism of Zhu, Tang’s interpretation of Zhu is much more sympathetic and faithful to him. Among other similar books on this history, this book is perhaps one of the most profound in philosophical insight.)Google Scholar
  30. Tillman, Hoyt C. 1992. Confucian Discourse and Chu Hsi’s Ascendancy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (An important monograph that must be consulted for anyone who are interested in Zhu Xi’s contemporaries and their interaction with Zhu Xi.)Google Scholar
  31. Tiwald, Justin. 2011. “Dai Zhen’s Defense of Self-interest.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy, Supplement to 38: 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tiwald, Justin, and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds. 2014. Readings in Later Chinese Philosophy: Han Dynasty to the 20th Century, Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  33. Wang, Fuzhi 王夫之. 1988–1996. Complete Works of Chuanshan (Wang Fuzhi) 船山全書. Changsha 長沙: Yuelu Shushe 岳麓書社.Google Scholar
  34. Wang, Yangming 王陽明. 1963. Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian Writings. Translated and Edited by Chan Wing-tsit. New York/London, Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2010. Complete Works of Wang Yangming 王陽明全集. Hangzhou 杭州: Zhejiang Guji Chubanshe 浙江古籍出版社.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2011. Complete Works of Wang Yangming 王陽明全集. Shanghai 上海: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe 上海古籍出版社.Google Scholar
  37. Wu, Genyou 吳根友. 2004. The Genesis of the Modern Views of Values in China: from Li Zhi to Dai Zhen 中國現代價值觀的初生歷程——從李贄到戴震. Wuhan 武漢: Wuhan Daxue Chubanshe 武漢大學出版社. (A research on the emergence of new values in Ming–Qing period in China, which could serve as a foundation for China to embrace some key values of modernization.)Google Scholar
  38. Xiao, Jiefu 蕭萐父, and Xu Sumin 許蘇民. 2002. Critical Biography of Wang Fuzhi 王夫之評傳. Nanjing 南京: Nanjing University Press 南京大學出版社. (This is not just a biography, but also a systematic research on Wang Fuzhi’s philosophy.)Google Scholar
  39. Xue, Xuan 薛瑄. 2015. Reading Notes of Master Xue Wenqing 薛文清公讀書錄. In Complete Works of Xue Xuan 薛瑄全集. Taiyuan 太原: Sanjin Chubanshe 三晉出版社.Google Scholar
  40. Yan, Yuan 顏元. 1987. Works of Yan Yuan 顏元集. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局Google Scholar
  41. Yü, Ying-shih 余英時. 2000. On Dai Zhen and Zhang Xuecheng 論戴震與章學誠. Beijing 北京: Sanlian Shudian 三聯書店. (A research that especially focuses on Dai’s and Zhang’s methodologies and their self-images as Confucian scholars.)Google Scholar
  42. Zhang, Dainian 張岱年. 1978a. “On Zhang Zai’s Thoughts and Works” 關於張載的思想和著作. In Works of Zhang Zai 張載集 (1–18). (A materialist interpretation of Zhang Zai.)Google Scholar
  43. Zhang, Xuezhi 張學智. 2000. History of Philosophy in the Ming Dynasty 明代哲學史. Beijing 北京: Beijing Daxue Chubanshe 北京大學出版社. (A systematic research on this history that provides readers with both a good overview of this history and detailed explications of each thinkers.)Google Scholar
  44. Zhang, Zai 張載. 1978b. Works of Zhang Zai 張載集. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  45. Zheng, Zemian. 2015a. “Dai Zhen’s Criticism and Misunderstanding of Zhu Xi’s Moral Theory.” Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14: 433–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. ———. 2015b. “Self-Deception, Sincerity (Cheng), and Zhu Xi’s Last Word.” International Philosophical Quarterly 55.3:219–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. ———. 2018. “An Alternative Way of Confucian Sincerity: Wang Yangming’s ‘Unity of Knowing and Doing’ as a Response to Zhu Xi’s Puzzle of Self-Deception.” Philosophy East and West, 68(4): 1345–1368. (this paper, together with the previous paper on Zhu Xi’s view of self-deception, presents a new story to explain the transition of Neo-Confucianism from Zhu Xi to Wang Yangming, a story that focuses on the question of how sincerity is possible.)Google Scholar
  48. Zhu, Xi 朱熹. 1983. Commentary on the Four Books 四書章句集注. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  49. ———. 1986. Classified Conversations of Zhu Xi 朱子語類. Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 2002. Complete Works of Master Zhu 朱子全書. Shanghai 上海: Anhui Jiaoyu Chubanshe 安徽教育出版社 and Shanghai Guji Chubanshe 上海古籍出版社.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations