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Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis in Infectious Disease

  • Kritika Gupta
  • Marianne Saldanha
  • Mruganka Parasnis
  • Padma V. Devarajan
  • Ratnesh JainEmail author
  • Prajakta DandekarEmail author
Chapter
Part of the AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series book series (AAPS, volume 39)

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLR) present a crucial first line of defense to attack by pathogens. In addition, the diversity and widespread localization of TLRs in the human body make them prime candidates for the development of therapeutics. TLRs are known to function by inducing the release of cytokines that result in an inflammation state. However, this release of cytokines needs to be tightly regulated in order to prevent adverse reactions such as sepsis. In this chapter, we describe the role of TLRs in pathogenesis and present various strategies that have been developed to target TLRs, including formulations and administration routes, with the help of various examples.

Keywords

Toll-like receptors Infectious diseases Innate and adaptive immunity Pathogenesis Targeted drug delivery 

Abbreviations

AAGPs

Aminoalkylglucosaminide 4-phosphates

AMPs

Antimicrobial peptides

AP-1

Activator protein 1

APCs

Antigen-presenting cells

BCG

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

CD

Cluster of differentiation

CpG

Cytosine phosphate guanine

CQ

Chloroquine

CT

C-terminal

CYLD

Cylindramatosis protein

DAMP

Damage-associated molecular pattern

DC

Dendritic cell

dsRNA

Double-stranded RNA

EBV

Ebola virus

ECD

Extracellular domain

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GNP

Gold nanoparticle

HA

Hemagglutinin

HCMV

Human cytomegalovirus

HCQ

Hydroxychloroquine

HDL

High-density lipoproteins

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HMGB1

High mobility group box 1

HSP

Heat-shock protein

I/R

Ischemia–reperfusion injury

IFN

Interferon

IKK

I Kappa B kinase

IL

Interleukin

IL-1R

Interleukin-1 receptor

IRAK

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase

IRF

Interferon regulatory factor

IROs

Immuno-regulatory oligonucleotides

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

LRR

Leucine-rich repeats

MAL

MyD88 adaptor-like protein

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MD-2

myeloid differentiation factor-2

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MLA

Monophosphoryl lipid

MMTV

Mouse mammary tumor virus

mRNA

Messenger RNA

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation factor 88

NAHNP

Non-anticoagulant heparin nanoparticle

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of B cells

NK

Natural killer

NP

Nanoparticle

NSCLC

Non-small-cell lung cancer

NT

N-terminal

ODN

oligodeoxynucleotide

OVA

Fagellin-ovalbumin

PAMP

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PBMC

Peripheral blood mononuclear cell

PMN

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

RIP

Receptor interacting protein-1

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus

RSV

Rous sarcoma virus

SAR

Structure–activity relationship

siRNA

small interfering RNA

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SMI

Small molecule inhibitors

SS

Systemic sclerosis

ssRNA

Single-stranded RNA

TACAs

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens

TAK-1

Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1

TBK-1

TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator 1

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-β

TIR

Toll/interleukin-1 receptor

TIRAP

TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TMD

Transmembrane domain

TNFSF10

Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 10

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

TRADD

TNF receptor type 1-associated death domain

TRAF

TNF receptor-associated factor

TRAM

TRIF-related adaptor molecule

Treg

regulatory T cells

TRIF

Toll-interferon response factor

VIPER

Viral Inhibitory peptide of TLR-4

VSV

Vesicular stomatitis virus

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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kritika Gupta
    • 1
  • Marianne Saldanha
    • 3
  • Mruganka Parasnis
    • 3
  • Padma V. Devarajan
    • 2
  • Ratnesh Jain
    • 3
    Email author
  • Prajakta Dandekar
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesInsitute of Chemical Technology, Deemed University, Elite Status and Centre of Excellence, Government of MaharashtraMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

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