Advertisement

Bio Waste Treatment

  • A. V. Narasimha SwamyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The organic wastewaters emanated from industries and domestic sources if discharged to inland surface waters without proper treatment, will lead to damage of the environment. In order to protect environment, it is essential to treat these wastewaters originating from industrial or domestic sources by physical, chemical or biological methods. Since the composition of wastewaters is not uniform and complex in nature, biowaste treatment seems to be an economically viable solution. Certain organic chemical wastewaters are difficult to biodegrade and such wastewaters are considered to be recalcitrant. Nitroaromatic plant wastewaters fall under recalcitrant category of wastes. The acclimatization period of nitroaromatic wastewaters would be 4–6 weeks. Biowaste treatment takes an important role in treating various types of organic chemical industrial wastewaters and domestic wastewaters. Biological wastewater treatment can be either aerobic or anaerobic in nature. These microorganisms may be strict aerobes or anaerobes or could be facultative. Nevertheless biowaste treatment plays a key role in wastewater treatment system. Some organic industrial wastewaters can be easily treated so that the final biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is almost zero. Interestingly certain recalcitrant organic compounds like nitroaromatic compounds are difficult to be degraded by aerobic bacteria. Even these recalcitrant compounds are treated by aerobic microorganisms after proper acclimatization and finally the treated wastewater contains simpler organic compounds that could be nontoxic in nature. Essentially the benzene ring is broken to simpler compounds like pyruvate and the treated wastewater can be discharged to inland surface water streams. Further the treated wastewater is subjected to bioassay test, so as to confirm its nontoxic nature. The fundamental concepts of the aerobic and anaerobic treatment along with a case study of nitroaromatic plant wastewaters are discussed in this chapter.

Keywords

Acclimatization Aerobic anaerobic microorganisms Nontoxic Bioassay Recalcitrant Wastewaters 

Abbreviations

B1

DO of seed control before incubation, mg/L

B2

DO seed control after incubation, mg/L

dx/dt/X

Specific growth rate, and is expressed as μ

D1

DO (dissolved oxygen of diluted sample immediately after preparation, mg/L

D2

DO of diluted sample after 5 days incubation at 20C, mg/L

f

Recirculation ratio

p

Decimal volumetric fraction of sample used

Q

Flow rate m3/day

\( Q_{\text{L}}^{n} \)

Hydraulic loading rate per unit area, \( {\text{m}}^{ 3} /{\text{d}} \cdot {\text{m}}^{ 2} \)

Se

Concentration of substrate

So

Influent BOD, mg/L

S

Effluent BOD, mg/L

St

Effluent BOD5 after a contact time t, mg/L

X

Concentration of biomass, mg/L

Y

Yield coefficient for conversion of BOD 5 days into bacterial cells, mg MLVSS/mg BOD5 removed

V

Volume of aerobic bioreactor, m3

W

BOD loading: kg/day

Ks

Saturation constant

1/μ

SRT (solids retention time) or mean residence time θc

θc

Mean cell residence time

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is thankful to M/s Hindustan Organic Chemicals Limited for approving the proposal for publishing the ETP information. Particularly, the author would like to thank Mr. S.B. Bhide, Chairman and Managing Director of M/s. Hindustan Organic Chemicals Limited, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Further Readings

  1. American Public Health Association. (1989). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (17th ed.). Water Pollution Control Federation, American Water Works Association.Google Scholar
  2. Benefield, L. D., & Randall, C. W. (1980). Biological process design for wastewater treatment (526 p.). EUA: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Benefield, L. D., & Randall, C. W. (1980b). Biological process design for wastewater treatment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Clark, J. W., Viessman, W., Jr., & Hammer, M. J. (1977). Water supply and pollution control. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  5. Crites, R., & Tecobanoglous, G. (1998). Small and decentralized wastewater management systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  6. Davis, M. L., & Cornwell, D. A. (1991). Introduction to environmental engineering. New York: McGra-Hll International Editions.Google Scholar
  7. Eckenfelder, W. W., & Grau, P. (1992). Activated sludge process design and control. Theory and practice (268 p). Lancaster, EUA: Technomic Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  8. Grady, C. P. L., Jr., Daigger, G. T., & Lim, H. C. (1999). Biological wastewater treatment (2nd ed. rev. and expanded). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  9. Greenberg, A. E., Clesceri, L. S., & Eaton, A. D. (1992) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (18th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation.Google Scholar
  10. Horan, N. J. (1990). Biological wastewater treatment systems. Theory and operation (310 p.). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Metcalf & Eddy. (2003). Wastewater engineering: Treatment and reuse (4th ed., 1819 p.). McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Rao, C. S. (1992). Environmental pollution control engineering. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Limited.Google Scholar
  13. Rao, M. N., & Dutta, A. K. (1979). Wastewater treatment rational methods of design and industrial practices. Calcutta: Oxford & IBH Publishing CO.Google Scholar
  14. Sawyer, C. N., McCarty, P. L., & Parkin, G. F. (1994). Chemistry for environmental engineering. New York: McGrawhill International Editions.Google Scholar
  15. Tchobanoglous, G., & Schroeder, E. D. (1985). Water quality. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 96, no. SA3, 1970.Google Scholar
  16. Wanner, J. (1994). Activated sludge bulking and foaming control (327 p.). Technomic Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  17. Wilson, F. (1981). Design calculations in wastewater treatment (221 p.). London: E.&F.N. Spon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations