21st Century Virology: Critical Steps

  • Paul ShapshakEmail author


Modernization and refurbishing virology are rapidly advancing as we embark the third decade of the 21st Century. This is needed so as to deepen the impact of the global public health establishment on disease reduction and improvement in well-being. One of the worst global scenarios has occurred, despite alerts and caveats from scientist, namely, global warming, with severe consequences, which promote lower levels of health, lapses in care, vector spread, and provides complementary alternative evolutionary pathways for disease proliferation and progression.

This chapter approaches the application of equations and computer-related intelligence to the study of biological viruses and summarizes certain theoretical advances in our understanding of energy and order/disorder (entropy), which are essential for advances in virology. This chapter further promotes advances in virology that are essential for fundamental attacks on vial infectious disease, therapy, and vaccines. (Computer as well as biological viruses are mentioned, because of their syzygy of yoked integral understanding.)


Virus Virus detection Virology Biological viruses Electronic viruses Molecular biology DNA sequencing Genome Evolution Vaccines Thermodynamics Entropy Enthalpy Equations Fractals Computer-related intelligence Self-replication and repair Artificial Intelligence (AI) Quantum computers (QC) Clausius Feynman Gibbs Maxwell Boltzmann Einstein von Neumann 



Conversations with Dr. G. Baumslag (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ), Dr. C. Smith (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ), and A. Pellionisz (Mountainview, CA) are acknowledged.

Conflicts of Interest

The author reports no conflicts of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineTampa General Hospital, USF Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA

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