• Peter J. MauritsEmail author


This chapter traces the development of Italian futurism and its connection to (Italian) fascism. It discusses how this avant-garde movement changed as it migrated across the globe—from Portugal, to Russia, and to Japan. Subsequently, the chapter moves on to more contemporary forms of futurism including techno- and retro-futurism, and ends on what is arguably the most important contemporary form of futurism, Afrofuturism.


  1. Anderson, Reynaldo, and Charles E. Jones, eds. 2016. Afrofuturism 2.0: The rise of astro-blackness. London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  2. Barooshian, Vahan D. 1976. Russian cubo-futurism, 1910–1930: A study in avant-gardism. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  3. Berghaus, Günter. 1996. Futurism and politics: Between anarchist rebellion and fascist reaction, 1909–1944. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  4. Berghaus, Günther. 2011. Editorial: Aims and functions of the international yearbook of futurism studies. In International yearbook of futurism studies, ed. Günther Berghaus, vol. 1, IX–XIII. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, Adrienne, and Britt Rusert. 2005. Introduction. PLMA 130 (3): 819–829.Google Scholar
  6. Buelens, Geert, Harald Hendrix, and Monica Jansen, eds. 2012. The history of futurism: The precursors, protagonists, and legacies. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  7. Burliak, David, Alexander Kruchenykh, V. Mayakovsky, and Victor Khlebnikov. 2004. Slap in the face of public taste. In Words in revolution: Russian futurist manifestoes, trans. and ed. Anna M. Lawton and Herbert Eagle, 1912–1928, 51–52. Washington, DC: New Academia Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Campos, Álvaro de. 2006. Triumphal ode. In A little larger than the entire universe, ed. Fernando Pessoa. Trans. Richard Zenith, 153–160. New York: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
  9. Clipping. 2016. Splendor and misery. Seattle/Washington, DC: Sub Pop.Google Scholar
  10. Coenen, Christopher. 2009. Utopian aspects of the debate on converging technologies. In Assessing societal implications of converging technological development, ed. Gerhard Banse, Armin Grunwald, Imre Hronszky, and Gordon Nelson, 141–172. Berlin: Edition Sigma.Google Scholar
  11. Dery, Mark. 1994. Flame wars: The discourse of cyberculture. Ed. Mark Dery. Durham/London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dix, Stephen. 2011. How the first Portuguese modernism became public: From Orpheu to Athena. In Portuguese modernisms: Multiple perspectives in literature and the visual arts, ed. Stephen Dix and Jerónimo Pizarro, 155–170. New York: Legenda.Google Scholar
  13. Elia, Adriano. 2014. The languages of afrofuturism. Lingue e linguaggi 12: 83–96.Google Scholar
  14. Eshun, Kodwo. 2003. Further considerations on afrofuturism. The New Centennial Review 3 (2, Summer): 287–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Folejewski, Zbigniew. 1963. Mayakovsky and futurism. Comparative Literature Studies. Special Advanced Issue: 71–77.Google Scholar
  16. Gentile, Emilio. 2003. The struggle for modernity: Nationalism, futurism, and fascism. Westport/London: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Kanbara, Tai. 1925. Futurism studies. Tokyo: Idea Shobō.Google Scholar
  18. Khlebnikov, Velimir. 2010. Incantation by laughter. The International Literary Quarterly. Trans. Charles Bernstein, 10 (February).Google Scholar
  19. Marinetti, F.T. 1924. Futurismo e fascismo. Foligno: Franco Campitelli.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2002. Words in freedom. In Selected poems and selected prose. Trans. Elizabeth R. Napier and Barbara Studholme, 55. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2009a. Response to Hitler. In Futurism: An anthology, ed. Lawrence Rainey, Christine Poggi, and Laura Wittman, 297–298. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 2009b. Technical manifesto of futurist literature. In Futurism: An anthology, ed. Lawrence Rainey, Christine Poggi, and Laura Wittman, 119–125. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2009c. The founding and manifesto of futurism. In Futurism: An anthology, ed. Lawrence Rainey, Christine Poggi, and Laura Wittman, 49–53. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2009d. The Italian empire. In Futurism: An anthology, ed. Lawrence Rainey, Christine Poggi, and Laura Wittman, 273–275. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Marinetti, F.T., and Aldo Palazzeschi. 1978. Carteggio con un’appendice di altre lettere a Palazzeschi. Ed. Paolo Prestigiacomo. Milan: Mondadori.Google Scholar
  26. Melo e Castro, Ernesto de. 1980. Vanguardas na poesia portuguesa do século vinte. Lisbon: Biblioteca Breve.Google Scholar
  27. Omuka, Toshiharu. 2000. Futurism in Japan, 1909–1920. In International futurism in arts and literature, ed. Günter Berghaus, 244–270. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  28. Renkichi, Hirato. 2004. Manifesto of the Japanese futurist movement. Cabinet 13 (Spring): 819.Google Scholar
  29. Sinker, Mark. 1992. Loving the alien: In advance of the landing. The Wire 96, February.Google Scholar
  30. Stone, Marla. 1998. The patron state: Culture and politics in fascist Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Syms, Martine. 2013. The mundane afrofuturist manifesto. Rhizome, December 17. Accessed 20 July 2017.
  32. Thorpe, Charles. 2016. Necroculture. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. VanDerMeer, Jeff. 2011. The steampunk bible: An illustrated guide to the world of imaginary airships. New York: Abrams Image.Google Scholar
  34. Womack, Ytasha. 2013. Afrofuturism: The world of black sci-fi and fantasy culture. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.Google Scholar
  35. Yazek, Lisa. 2005. An afrofuturist reading of Ralph Ellison’s ‘Invisible Man’. Rethinking History 9 (2): 297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Youngquist, Paul. 2016. A pure solar world: Sun Ra and the birth of afrofuturism. Austin: Texas University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations