Advertisement

Safety, Ergonomics and Human Factors in Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

  • M. BortoliniEmail author
  • L. Botti
  • F. G. Galizia
  • C. Mora
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)

Abstract

In the recent years, the adoption of reconfigurable systems represents a primary strategy to improving flexibility, elasticity and efficiency in both manufacturing and assembly. Global markets, the increasing need for customization, high-quality standards, dynamic batches and short life cycles are the key factors driving the transition from traditional to reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs). Despite their automation level, such systems still require actions by human operators, e.g. material handling, WIP load/unload, tool setup, etc. These operations rise safety issues because of the human–machine interaction and cooperation. Particularly, RMSs require changes of auxiliary modules and tools, based on the manual intervention, to achieve effective system configurations enlarging the produced mix. In this field, embracing the emerging Industry 4.0 technology, a lack of procedures and reference approaches exists to supporting companies and practitioners in analysing the impact on safety and ergonomics coming from the switch from standard to RMSs. This chapter, after revising the literature, standards and reference guidelines, converges to an innovative methodological and operative framework supporting and spreading the integration of safety, ergonomics and human factors in the emerging reconfigurable systems. Deep attention is paid to best-in-class examples, from industry, to strengthen the industrial perspective and applicability.

Keywords

Reconfigurable manufacturing systems Human factors Ergonomics Safety Methodological framework Industry 4.0 

References

  1. Aljuneidi T, Bulgak AA (2016) A mathematical model for designing reconfigurable cellular hybrid manufacturing-remanufacturing systems. Int J Adv Manuf Techol 87(5–8):1585–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asensio-Cuesta S, Diego-Mas JA, Cremades-Oliver LV, González-Cruz MC (2012) A method to design job rotation schedules to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive work. Int J Prod Res 50(24):7467–7478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azizi N, Zolfaghari S, Liang M (2010) Modeling job rotation in manufacturing systems: the study of employee’s boredom and skill variations. Int J Prod Econ 123(1):69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai JJ, Gong YG, Wang NS, Tang DB (2009) Methodology of virtual manufacturing cell formation in reconfigurable manufacturing system for make-to-order manufacturing. Comput Integr Manuf Syst 15(2):313–320Google Scholar
  5. Ben Cheikh S, Hajri-Gabouj S, Darmoul S (2016) Manufacturing configuration selection under arduous working conditions: a multi-criteria decision approach. In: Proceedings of the 2016 international conference on industrial engineering and operations managementGoogle Scholar
  6. Bi ZM, Lang SY, Shen W, Wang L (2008) Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: the state of the art. Int J Prod Res 46(4):967–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bijlegaard M, Brunoe TD, Bossen J, Andersen AL, Nielsen K (2016) Reconfigurable manufacturing potential in small and medium enterprises with low volume and high variety: pre-design evaluation. Procedia CIRP 51:32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borg GA (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14(5):377–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borg G (1990) Psychophysical scaling with applications in physical work and the perception of exertion. Scand J Work Environ Health.  https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bortolini M, Galizia FG, Mora C (2018) Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: literature review and research trend. J Manuf Syst 49:93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bortolini M, Galizia FG, Mora C (2019) Dynamic design and management of reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Procedia Manuf (in press)Google Scholar
  12. Botti L, Mora C, Zecchi G (2016) Engineering controls and industrial applications for ergonomics. In: Challenges, applications and new perspectives. Ergonomics. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, pp 49–110Google Scholar
  13. Bougrine A, Darmoul S, Hajri-Gabouj S (2017) TOPSIS based multi-criteria reconfiguration of manufacturing systems considering operational and ergonomic indicators. In: IEEE international conference on advance systems and electric technologies, pp 329–334Google Scholar
  14. Defersha FM, Chen M (2005) A comprehensive mathematical model for the design of cellular manufacturing systems. Int J Prod Econ 103:767–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deros BM, Daruis DDI, Basir IM (2015) A study on ergonomic awareness among workers performing manual material handling activities. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 195:1666–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dul J, Neumann WP (2009) Ergonomics contributions to company strategies. Appl Ergon 40(4):745–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eguia I, Racero J, Guerrero F, Lozano S (2013) Cell formation and scheduling of part families for reconfigurable cellular manufacturing systems using tabu search. Simulation 89:1056–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eguia I, Molina JC, Lozano S, Racero J (2017) Cell design and multi-period machine loading in cellular reconfigurable manufacturing systems with alternative routing. Int J Prod Res 55(10):2775–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ElMaraghy HA (2005) Flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems paradigms. Int J Flexible Manuf Syst 17(4):261–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. EU-OSHA 2008, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in HORECAGoogle Scholar
  21. European Committee for Standardization (2008) EN 1005-4:2005+A1:2008. Safety of machinery—human physical performance—part 4: evaluation of working postures and movements in relation to machineryGoogle Scholar
  22. Fonseca H, Loureiro IF, Arezes P (2013) Development of a job rotation scheme to reduce musculoskeletal disorders: a case study. Occup Saf Hyg 351(356):351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Galan R, Racero J, Eguia I, Garcia JM (2007) A systematic approach for product families formation in reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Rob Comput Int Manuf 23(5):489–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galizia FG, ElMaraghy H, Bortolini M, Mora C (2019) Product platforms design, selection and customisation in high-variety manufacturing. Int J Prod Res.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2019.1602745
  25. Heisel U, Meitzner M (2006) Progress in reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems and transformable factories. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heragu SS (1994) Group technology and cellular manufacturing. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 24(2):203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. International Standard Organization (2000) Ergonomics. Evaluation of static working posturesGoogle Scholar
  28. International Standard Organization (2003) System of standards for labor safety. Ergonomics. Manual handling. Part 1. Lifting and carrying. General requirementsGoogle Scholar
  29. International Standard Organization (2007a) System of standards for labor safety. Ergonomics. In: Manual handling. Part 2. Pushing and pullingGoogle Scholar
  30. International Standard Organization (2007b) ISO 11228-3:2007. Ergonomics. Manual handling. Part 3. Handling of low loads at high frequencyGoogle Scholar
  31. International Standard Organization (2009) Safety of machinery—safety-related parts of control systems—part 1: general principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2006/Cor 1:2009). ISO 138491-1:2015Google Scholar
  32. International Standard Organization (2010) ISO 12100:2010 Safety of machinery—general principles for design—risk assessment and risk reductionGoogle Scholar
  33. International Standard Organization (2012) ISO 13849-2:2012 safety of machinery—safety-related parts of control systems—part 2: validationGoogle Scholar
  34. International Standard Organization (2013a) ISO 13856-1:2013 safety of machinery—pressure-sensitive protective devices—part 1: general principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive floorsGoogle Scholar
  35. International Standard Organization (2013b) ISO 13856-2:2013 safety of machinery—pressure-sensitive protective devices—part 2: general principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive edges and pressure-sensitive barsGoogle Scholar
  36. International Standard Organization (2014) ISO/TR 12295. Ergonomics. Application document for international standards on manual handling (ISO 11228-1, ISO 11228-2 and ISO 11228-3) and evaluation of static working postures (ISO 11226). Technical ReportGoogle Scholar
  37. Javadian N, Aghajani A, Rezaeian J, Sebdani MJG (2011) A multi-objective integrated cellular manufacturing systems design with dynamic system reconfiguration. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 56(1–4):307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koren Y (2006) General RMS characteristics. Comparison with dedicated and flexible systems. In: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems and transformable factories. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–45Google Scholar
  39. Koren Y, Shpitalni M (2010) Design of reconfigurable manufacturing systems. J Manuf Syst 29(4):130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koren Y, Gu X, Guo W (2018) Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: principles, design and future trends. Front Mech Eng 13(2):121–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koren Y, Heisel U, Jovane F, Moriwaki T, Pritschow G, Ulsoy G, Van Brussel H (1999) Reconfigurable manufacturing systems. CIRP Annals 48(2):527–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kouki S (2016) A TOPSIS based multi-criteria decision support approach for facility layout reconfiguration. Int Res J Emer Trends Multi 2(9):1–10Google Scholar
  43. Kuzgunkaya O, ElMaraghy H (2007) Economic and strategic perspectives on investing in RMS and FMS. Int J Flex Manuf Syst 19:217–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Landers RG, Min BK, Koren Y (2001) Reconfigurable machine tools. CIRP Ann Manuf Tech 50:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mehrabi MG, Ulsoy AG, Koren Y (2000) Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: key to future manufacturing. J Intell Manuf 11(4):403–419Google Scholar
  46. Mehrabi MG, Ulsoy AG, Koren Y, Heytler P (2002) Trends and perspectives in flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. J Intell Manuf 13(2):135–146Google Scholar
  47. Molina A, Rodriguez CA, Ahuett H, Cortés JA, Ramírez M, Jiménez G, Martinez S (2005) Next-generation manufacturing systems: key research issues in developing and integrating reconfigurable and intelligent machines. Int J Comput Integr Manuf 18(7):525–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Narongwanich W, Duenyas I, Birge JR (2002) Optimal portfolio of reconfigurable and dedicated capacity under uncertainty. Preprint, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  49. Niroomand I, Kuzgunkaya O, Bulgak AA (2012) Impact of reconfiguration characteristics for capacity investment strategies in manufacturing systems. Int J Prod Econ 139:288–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nsakanda AL, Diaby M, Price WL (2006) Hybrid genetic approach for solving large-scale capacitated cell formation problems with multiple routings. Eur J Oper Res 171(3):1051–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pattanaik LN, Kumar V (2010) Multiple level of reconfiguration for robust cells formed using modular machines. Int J Ind Syst Eng 5:424–441Google Scholar
  52. Pattanaik LN, Jain PK, Metha NK (2007) Cell formation in the presence of reconfigurable machines. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 34:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rabbani M, Samavati M, Ziaee MS, Rafiei H (2014) Reconfigurable dynamic cellular manufacturing system: a new bi-objective mathematical model. RAIRO Oper Res 48(1):75–102MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Renzi C, Leali F, Cavazzuti M, Andrisano AO (2014) A review on artificial intelligence applications to the optimal design of dedicated and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Int J Advanc Manuf Technol 72(1–4):403–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Setchi RM, Lagos N (2004) Reconfigurability and reconfigurable manufacturing systems: state-of-the-art review. In: 2nd IEEE international conference on industrial informatics, pp 529–535Google Scholar
  56. Singh N (1993) Digital of cellular manufacturing systems: an invited review. Eur J Oper Res 69(3):284–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Snook SH (1978) The ergonomics society. The society’s lecture 1978. The design of manual handling tasks. Ergonomics 21(12):963–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Unglert J, Jauregui-Becker J, Hoekstra S (2016) Computational design synthesis of reconfigurable cellular manufacturing systems: a design engineering model. Procedia CIRP 57:374–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wemmerlov U, Johnson DJ (1997) Cellular manufacturing at 46 user plants: implementation experiences and performance improvements. Int J Prod Res 35(1):29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xiaobo Z, Jiancai W, Zhenbi L (2000) A stochastic model of a reconfigurable manufacturing system part 1: a framework. Int J Prod Res 38(10):2273–2285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Xing B, Nelwamondo FV, Gao W, Marwala T (2009) Application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods for designing and analysis of reconfigurable cellular manufacturing systems (RCMS). In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on adaptive science & technology, pp 402–409Google Scholar
  62. Xu Z, Ko J, Cochran D, Jung M (2012) Design of assembly lines with the concurrent consideration of productivity and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders using linear models. Comput Ind Eng 62(2):431–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yamada Y, Ookoudo O, Komura Y (2003) Layout optimization of manufacturing cells and allocation optimization of transport robots in reconfigurable manufacturing systems using particle swarm optimization. In: International conference on intelligent robots and systems, pp 2049–2054Google Scholar
  64. Yu JM, Doh HH, Kim HW, Kin JS, Lee DH, Nam SH (2012) Iterative algorithms for part grouping and loading in cellular reconfigurable manufacturing systems. J Oper Res Soc 63:1635–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bortolini
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Botti
    • 1
  • F. G. Galizia
    • 1
  • C. Mora
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN)University of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations