What the Literature Says on BCG Refractory Disease and Alternatives
High-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) should receive an adjuvant course of intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as first-line treatment (Yates and Rouprêt in World J Urol 29(4):415–422, 2011). However, a large amount will have refractory or relapsing disease. Guideline recommendation in the ‘refractory’ setting is radical cystectomy. This chapter covers alternatives to BCG refractory disease in grey literature.
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