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Histological Variants in Bladder Cancer—Sqaumous Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Differentiation

  • Sanchia S. GoonewardeneEmail author
  • Raj Persad
  • Hanif Motiwala
  • David Albala
Chapter

Abstract

Bladder squamous cell carcinoma, squamous metaplasia, and transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation are rare findings (Rausch et al. in Urol Oncol. 32(1):32.e11–6, 2014). A common risk factor is chronic bladder irritation and inflammation (Rausch et al. in Urol Oncol. 32(1):32.e11–6, 2014). This chapter covers diagnosis and management.

References

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanchia S. Goonewardene
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raj Persad
    • 2
  • Hanif Motiwala
    • 3
  • David Albala
    • 4
  1. 1.East of England DeaneryNorfolk and Norwich University HospitalNorwichUK
  2. 2.North Bristol NHS TrustBristolUK
  3. 3.Southend University HospitalWestcliff-on-SeaUK
  4. 4.Boston UniversityBostonUSA

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