Advertisement

Health and Nutrition: Policy, Consumer and Industry Perspectives

  • Jutta RoosenEmail author
  • Irina Dolgopolova
  • Matthias Staudigel
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Advances in Bioeconomy: Economics and Policies book series (PABEP)

Abstract

This chapter reviews the most important regulatory instruments in nutrition policy in the EU and individual member states together with the most important scientific findings regarding consumer perspectives on healthy food choices. First, a definition of nutrition quality and stylized facts on the state of nutrition in the EU is provided. This is followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of nutrition behaviour, potential leverage points, rationales and available policy instruments. EU nutrition policies in the area of food labelling and school programmes are presented next, and there is a brief overview of policies in individual EU member states. The effect of policies on consumers’ nutritional choices is assessed based on a literature review. At the end, the chapter discusses industry perspectives.

References

  1. Ashwell, M. 2002. Concepts of Functional Foods. Brussels: ILSI Europe Concise Monograph Series.Google Scholar
  2. Bonanno, A., R. Huang, and Y. Liu. 2015. Simulating Welfare Effects of the European Nutrition and Health Claims’ Regulation: The Italian Yogurt Market. European Review of Agricultural Economics 42 (3): 499–533.  https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbu033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brambila-Macias, J., B. Shankar, S. Capacci, M. Mazzocchi, F.J.A. Perez-Cueto, W. Verbeke, and W.B. Traill. 2011. Policy Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating: A Review of What Works, What Does Not, and What Is Promising. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 32 (4): 365–375.  https://doi.org/10.1177/156482651103200408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bucher, T., C. Collins, M.E. Rollo, T.A. McCaffrey, N. De Vlieger, D. Van Der Bend, et al. 2016. Nudging Consumers towards Healthier Choices: A Systematic Review of Positional Influences on Food Choice. British Journal of Nutrition 115 (12): 2252–2263.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516001653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft. 2018. Nationale Reduktions-und Innovationsstrategie für Zucker, Fette und Salz in Fertigprodukten. Berlin. Retrieved from https://www.in-form.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/PDF/20181121bmel-strategiepapier-zucker.pdf
  6. Cadario, R., and P. Chandon. 2019. Which Healthy Eating Nudges Work Best? A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions in Field Experiments. Marketing Science, forthcoming. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2018.1128.
  7. Colchero, M.A., J.A. Rivera, B.M. Popkin, S.W. Ng, and C. Hill. 2017. Sustained Consumer Response: Evidence from Two-Years After Implementing the Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tax in Mexico. Health Affairs 36 (3): 564–571.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1231.Sustained.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crockett, R.A., S. King, T.M. Marteau, A.T. Prevost, G. Bignardi, N.W. Roberts, et al. 2018. Nutritional Labelling for Promoting Healthier Food Purchasing and Consumption. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009315.pub2.
  9. de Ridder, D., F. Kroese, C. Evers, M. Adriaanse, and M. Gillebaart. 2017. Healthy Diet: Health Impact, Prevalence, Correlates, and Interventions. Psychology and Health 32 (8): 907–941.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2017.1316849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Sa, J., and K. Lock. 2008. Will European Agricultural Policy for School Fruit and Vegetables Improve Public Health? A Review of School Fruit and Vegetable Programmes. European Journal of Public Health 18 (6): 558–568.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckn061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhar, T., and K. Baylis. 2011. Fast-Food Consumption and the Ban on Advertising Targeting Children: The Quebec Experience. Journal of Marketing Research 48 (5): 799–813.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.48.5.799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dobbs, R., C. Sawers, F. Thompson, J. Manyika, J. Woetzel, P. Child, et al. 2014. Overcoming Obesity: An Initial Economic Analysis Discussion Paper. London: McKinsey Global Institute. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business Functions/Economic Studies TEMP/Our Insights/How the world could better fight obesity/MGI_Overcoming_obesity_Full_report.ashx.Google Scholar
  13. Dubois, P., R. Griffith, and M. O’Connell. 2018. The Effects of Banning Advertising in Junk Food Markets. Review of Economic Studies 85 (1): 396–436.  https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdx025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. European Academies Science Advisory Council. 2017. Opportunities and Challenges for Research on Food and Nutrition Security and Agriculture in Europe. Retrieved from www.easac.eu
  15. European Commission. 2010. Functional Foods. Luxemburg.  https://doi.org/10.2777/85512
  16. ———. 2018. Initiatives on Nutrition and Physical Activity. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2019. EU Register of Nutrition and Health Claims Made on Foods. Retrieved February 24, from http://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/labelling_nutrition/claims/register/public/?event=register.home
  18. Hawkes, C., T.G. Smith, J. Jewell, J. Wardle, R.A. Hammond, S. Friel, et al. 2015. Smart Food Policies for Obesity Prevention. The Lancet 385 (9985): 2410–2421.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61745-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herrmann, R., and C. Roeder. 1998. Some Neglected Issues in Food Demand Analysis: Retail-Level Demand, Health Information and Product Quality. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 42 (4): 341–367.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8489.00057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ippolito, P.M., and A.D. Mathios. 1990. Information, Advertising and Health Choices: A Study of the Cereal Market. RAND Journal of Economics 21 (3): 459–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jensen, J.D., and I. Sommer. 2017. Reducing Calorie Sales from Supermarkets – ‘Silent’ Reformulation of Retailer-Brand Food Products. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 14 (1): 104.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0559-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kankeu, H.T., P. Saksena, K. Xu, and D.B. Evans. 2013. The Financial Burden from Non-communicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Literature Review. Health Research Policy and Systems 11 (1): 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-11-31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lacey, C., B. Clark, L. Frewer, and S. Kuznesof. 2016. “Reaching Its Limits”: Industry Perspectives on Salt Reduction. British Food Journal 118 (7): 1610–1624.  https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-01-2016-0027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lette, M., W.J.E. Bemelmans, J. Breda, L.C.J. Slobbe, J. Dias, and H.C. Boshuizen. 2016. Health Care Costs Attributable to Overweight Calculated in a Standardized Way for Three European Countries. The European Journal of Health Economics 17: 61–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-014-0655-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mazzocchi, M., W.B. Traill, and J.F. Shogren. 2009. Fat Economics: Nutrition, Health and Economic Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mogendi, J.B., H. De Steur, X. Gellynck, and A. Makokha. 2016. Consumer Evaluation of Food with Nutritional Benefits: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 67 (4): 355–371.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2016.1170768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Niebylski, M.L., K.A. Redburn, T. Duhaney, and N.R. Campbell. 2015. Healthy Food Subsidies and Unhealthy Food Taxation: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Nutrition 31 (6): 787–795.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2014.12.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Prüss-Üstün, A., C.D. Mathers, C.F. Corvalán, and A. Woodward. 2003. Assessing the Environmental Burden of Disease at National and Local Levels: Introduction and Methods. WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  29. Réquillart, V., and L.-G. Soler. 2014. Is the Reduction of Chronic Diseases Related to Food Consumption in the Hands of the Food Industry? European Review of Agricultural Economics 41 (3): 375–403.  https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbu010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Segerson, K. 1999. Mandatory Versus Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety. Agribusiness 15 (1): 53–70.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6297(199924)15:1<53::AID-AGR4>3.0.CO;2-G.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Segerson, K., and T.J. Miceli. 1998. Voluntary Environmental Agreements: Good or Bad News for Environmental Quality. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36 (2): 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sims, L.S. 1998. The Politics of Fat: Food and Nutrition Policy in America. Armonk: Sharpe.Google Scholar
  33. Smed, S., P. Scarborough, M. Rayner, and J.D. Jensen. 2016. The Effects of the Danish Saturated Fat Tax on Food and Nutrient Intake and Modelled Health Outcomes: An Econometric and Comparative Risk Assessment Evaluation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70: 681–686. Retrieved from http://10.0.4.14/ejcn.2016.6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spiteri, M., and L.-G. Soler. 2018. Food Reformulation and Nutritional Quality of Food Consumption: An Analysis Based on Households Panel Data in France. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72: 228–235.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-017-0044-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Staudigel, M., C. Lingl, and J. Roosen. 2018. Preferences Versus the Environment: How do School Fruit and Vegetable Programs Affect Children’s Fresh Produce Consumption? Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 0 (0): 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aepp/ppy031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S., and J.M. Wills. 2012. Nutrition Labeling to Prevent Obesity: Reviewing the Evidence from Europe. Current Obesity Reports 1 (3): 134–140.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-012-0020-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Straßburg, A. 2010. Ernährungserhebungen – Methoden und Instrumente. Ernährungs-Umschau 8/10, 422–430. Ernährungs-Umschau 57 (8): 422–430.Google Scholar
  38. Täger, M., J. Peltner, and S. Thiele. 2015. Bewertung der Ernährungsqualität mittels Healthy Eating Index und dessen modifizierter Varianten. Ernährungs-Umschau 63 (5): 110–118.  https://doi.org/10.4455/eu.2016.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thaler, R.H., and C.R. Sunstein. 2008. Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Thiele, S., and J. Roosen. 2018. Obesity, Fat Taxes and Their Effects on Consumers. In Regulating and Managing Food Safety in the EU – A Legal-Economic Perspective, ed. H. Bremmers and K. Purnhagen, 169–193. Charn: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thiele, S., G.B. Mensink, and R. Beitz. 2004. Determinants of Diet Quality. Public Health Nutrition 7 (01): 29–37.  https://doi.org/10.1079/phn2003516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Timmermans, J., C. Dijkstra, C. Kamphuis, M. Huitink, E. van der Zee, and M. Poelman. 2018. ‘Obesogenic’ School Food Environments? An Urban Case Study in the Netherlands. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (4).  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. van Camp, D., D.M.D.S. Monteiro, and N.H. Hooker. 2012. Stop or Go ? How Is the UK Food Industry Responding to Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels ? European Review of Agricultural Economics 39 (5): 821–842.  https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbr063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Van Cauwenberghe, E., L. Maes, H. Spittaels, F.J. Van Lenthe, J. Brug, J.M. Oppert, and I. De Bourdeaudhuij. 2010. Effectiveness of School-Based Interventions in Europe to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review of Published and Grey Literature. British Journal of Nutrition 103 (6): 781–797.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509993370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. World Health Organisation (WHO). 2003. Food and Nutrition Action Plans in the WHO European Region: Past, present and future. Report on a meeting of nutrition counterparts in the WHO European Region, Athens, 28 February–2 March 2003. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 2010. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases. ISBN 978 92 4 156422 9Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2014. European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015–2020.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111111261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wright, B., and P. Bragge. 2018. Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Choices when Dining out: A Systematic Review of Reviews. British Journal of Health Psychology 23 (2): 278–295.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jutta Roosen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Irina Dolgopolova
    • 1
  • Matthias Staudigel
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University of MunichMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations