Advertisement

Diseases, Problems or Needs: A Framework for Public Health

  • Andreu Segura-Benedicto
Conference paper

Abstract

Public health can play a pivotal role between the health care system and the whole of society when it comes to designing—and also to implement them—health care policies and, above all, general public policies with impact on health. Policies which require the involvement of many other sectors besides the health sector, since many of the determinants of health, beyond the absence of disease, are unrelated to the health sector. Prioritization often involves competition between the more traditional perspectives of health that are based on a pathogenic approach and aim to cure and prevent disease and the salutogenic approach that aims to detect and promote the causes of good health or at least of resilience. The absence of one satisfactory theory of health is a limitation of the salutogenic perspective but we don’t have either a true theory of the disease, beyond the description of pathological entities. Public health, understood as what we do as a society—not just as a health system—to guarantee the health of people has the responsibility and the opportunity to combine both perspectives in a balanced way.

Keywords

Health needs Health assets Health priorities Public health Health public policies 

References

  1. Antonovsky, A. (1996). The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International, 11, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonovsky, A., Maoz, B., Dowty, N., & Wijsenbeek, H. (1971). Twenty-five years later: A limited study of the sequelae of the concentration camp experience. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 6, 186–193.Google Scholar
  3. Benoit, F. (2013). Public policy models and their usefulness in public health: The stages model. Montréal: National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy. Accessed from http://www.ncchpp.ca/165/publications.ccnpps?id_article=966
  4. Callahan, D. (1973). A WHO definition of health. The Hasting Center Studies 1(3), 77–87. Accessed from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3527467
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1992). Principles of epidemiology (2nd ed.). Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed from https://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section9.html
  6. Dubos, R. (1959). Mirage of health. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  7. Duesberg, P. (1988). HIV is not a cause of AIDS. Science, 241, 514–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gase, L. N., Pennotti, R., & Smith, K. D. (2013). Health in all policies: Taking stock of emerging practices to incorporate health in decision making in the United States. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 19, 529–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators. (2017). Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet, 390, 1151–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goetghebeur, M. M., Wagner, M., Khoury, H., Levitt, R. J., Erickson, L. J., & Rindress, D. (2008). Evidence and value: Impact on decision making – the EVIDEM framework and potential applications. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guindo, L. A., Wagner, M., Baltussen, R., Rindress, D., van Til, J., Kind, P., & Goetghebeur, M. M. (2012). From efficacy to equity: Literature review of decision criteria for resource allocation and health care decision making. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 10, 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanlon, J. J. (1974). Public health: Administration and practice. Saint Louis: C.V. Mosbi Co.Google Scholar
  13. Heath, I. (2007). In defence of a national sickness service. British Medical Journal, 334, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kickbusch, I. (2013). Health in all policies. British Medical Journal, 347, f4283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kingma, E. M. (2012). Health and health promotion. Eindhoven: Tecnische Universiteit Eindhoven. Accessed from https://pure.tue.nl/ws/files/3462442/kingma2012.pdf
  16. Kirmayer, L. J., Sehdey, M., Whitley, R., Dandenau, S. F., & Isaac, C. (2009). Community resilience: Models, metaphors and measures. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 62–117.Google Scholar
  17. Ledogar, R. J., & Fleming, J. (2008). Social capital and resilience: A review of concepts and selected literature relevant to aboriginal youth resilience research. Pimatisiwin, 6(2), 25–46.Google Scholar
  18. Leeflang, M. M., Deeks, J. J., & Gatsonis, C. (2008). Bossuyt cochrane diagnostic test accuracy working group. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 149(12), 889–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leppo, K., & Ollila, E. (2013). Health in all policies: Seizing opportunities, implementing policies. Helsinki: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland.Google Scholar
  20. Lindstrom, B., & Eriksson, M. (2006). Contextualizing salutogenesis and Antonovsky in public health development. Health Promotion International, 21, 238–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Makary, M. A., & Daniel, M. (2016). Medical error—The third leading cause of death in the US. British Medical Journal, 353, 2139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marmot, M. (2005). Social determinants of health inequalities. Lancet, 365, 1099–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Menten, J., & Lesaffre, E. (2015). A general framework for comparative Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 15, 70.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-015-0061-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mumby, P. J., Chollett, I., Bozec, Y. M., & Wolff, N. H. (2014). Ecological resilience, robustness and vulnerability: How do these concepts benefit ecosystem management? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 7, 22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Naaktgeboren, C. A., Ochodo, E. A., Van Enst, W. A., de Groot, J. A. H., Hooft, L., Leeflang, M. M. G., Bossuyt, P. M., Moons, K. G. M., & Reitsma, J. B. (2016). Assessing variability in results in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16, 6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-016-0108-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pineault, R., & Daveluy, C. (1986). La planification de la santé: Concepts, méthodes, stratégies. Montréal: s.n. (éditeur).Google Scholar
  27. Puska, P. (2002). Successful prevention of non-communicable diseases: 25 year experiences with North Karelia Project in Finland. Public Health Medicine, 4(1), 5–7.Google Scholar
  28. Segura, B. A. (2014). Recortes, austeridad y salud. Informe SESPAS. Gac Sanit, 1, 7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. SESPAS/OMC Iatrogenesis. (n.d.). Analysis, control and prevention. Position paper. Accessed from sespas.es/.../English-IATROGENIA-DOCUMENTO-SESPAS-OM...Google Scholar
  30. Ståhl, T., Wismar, M., Ollila, E., Lahtinen, E., & Leppo, K. (Eds.). (2006). Health in all policies. Prospects and potentials. Helsinki: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.Google Scholar
  31. Susser, M. (1990). Disease, illness, sickness; impairment, disability and handicap. Psychological Medicine, 20, 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Susser, E. (2004). Eco-epidemiology: Thinking outside the black box. Epidemiology, 15, 519–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Susser, M., & Susser, E. (1996). Choosing a future for epidemiology: II. From black box to Chinese boxes and eco-epidemiology. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 674–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tejada de Rivero, D. A. (2003). Alma-Ata revisited. Perspectives in Health, 8, 3–7. Accessed from http://www.croatia.org/crown/articles/9595/1/Andrija-Stampar-is-the-father-of-the-World-Health-Organization.html
  35. Tromp, N., & Baltusen, R. (2012). Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: An aid for decision makers. BMC Health Services Research, 12, 454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Winslow, C. E. A. (1920). The untilled fields of public health. Science, 51, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wismar, M., McQueen, D., Lin, V., Jones, C. M., & Davies, M. (2012). Intersectoral governance for health in all policies. Eurohealth Incorporating Euro Observer, 18(4), 3–7.Google Scholar
  38. World Health Organization. (2013). Demonstrating a health in all policies analytic framework for learning from experiences: Based on literature reviews from Africa, South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. Geneva: World Health Organization. Accessed from www.who.int

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreu Segura-Benedicto
    • 1
  1. 1.Public Health Council, Generalitat de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations