The Socio-educational Model of Second Language Acquisition

  • Robert C. GardnerEmail author


This is an overview of the Socio-Educational Model of Second Language Acquisition from the first publication on the topic (Gardner & Lambert, Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266–272, 1959) to recent research. Topics include The Attitude Motivation Test Battery, the 10 scales assessed by it, four aggregate variables (e.g., integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, language anxiety and motivation), and representative research on achievement, perseverance, bicultural excursions, classroom behavior, language retention, and the research paradigm. A final section presents recent research on the role of the Socio-Educational Model applied to English as a global language. This section presents a path analysis of the Socio-Educational Model in general, reliability data based on samples from Canada vs Other Countries, and path analysis coefficients from five different countries, Croatia, Poland, Romania, Spain and Brazil.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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