Advertisement

Motivation and Projects

  • Christine MuirEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores the motivational possibilities arising from the inclusion of projects in second language (L2) classrooms. After offering a definition of the term, Muir presents a brief critique of projects both in general education and rooted in L2 education more specifically. This recognises that although projects have a varied history in educational contexts, when implemented effectively they can offer extraordinary opportunities to engage groups of students in highly motivated learning. Muir highlights the essential motivational aspects of intensive group projects, and concludes the chapter by exploring key directions for future research.

References

  1. Al-Hoorie, A. (2016a). Unconscious motivation. Part 1: Implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 423–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hoorie, A. (2016b). Unconscious motivation. Part 2: Implicit attitudes and L2 achievement. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(4), 619–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alrabai, F. (2016). The effects of teachers’ in-class motivational intervention on learners’ EFL achievement. Applied Linguistics, 37(3), 307–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, J., Dörnyei, Z., & Pugliese, C. (2015). The Principled Communicative Approach: Seven criteria for success. London: Helbling.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41(3), 586–598.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A., & Simon, K. M. (1977). The role of proximal intentions in self-regulation of refractory behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(3), 177–193.Google Scholar
  7. Barsade, S. G. (2002). The ripple effect: Emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 644–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beckett, G. H. (2002). Teacher and student evaluations of project-based instruction. TESL Canada Journal, 19(2), 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beckett, G. H. (2006). Project-based second and foreign language education: Theory, research and practice. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education. Past, present and future (pp. 3–16). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Beckett, G. H., & Slater, T. (2005). The project framework: A tool for language, content, and skills integration. ELT Journal, 59(2), 108–116.Google Scholar
  11. Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26(3&4), 369–398.Google Scholar
  12. Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). L2 motivation research 2005–2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System, 55, 147–157.Google Scholar
  13. Christodoulou, D. (2014). Seven myths about education. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Dörnyei, Z. (1997). Psychological processes in cooperative language learning: Group dynamics and motivation. Modern Language Journal, 81, 482–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dörnyei, Z., & Al-Hoorie, A. (2017). The motivational foundation of learning languages other than global English: Theoretical issues and research directions. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 455–468.Google Scholar
  17. Dörnyei, Z., Henry, A., & Muir, C. (2016). Motivational currents in language learning: Frameworks for focused interventions. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014). Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P., & Henry, A. (Eds.). (2015). Motivational dynamics in language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  20. Dörnyei, Z., & Murphey, R. (2003). Group dynamics in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: Longman.Google Scholar
  22. Dupuy, B. (2006). L’immeuble: French language and culture teaching and learning through projects in a global simulation. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education. Past, present and future (pp. 195–214). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Egbert, J. (2003). A study of flow theory in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 87(4), 499–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eyring, J. (2001). Experiential and negotiated language learning. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed., pp. 333–344). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  25. Fang, X., & Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and curricular reform in China: A case study. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 301–323.Google Scholar
  26. Fried-Booth, D. L. (2002). Project work (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gallagher, S. A. (2008). Designed to fit: Educational implications of gifted adolescents’ cognitive development. In F. Dixon (Ed.), Programs and services for gifted secondary students: A guide to recommended practices (pp. 3–20). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gallagher, S. A., & Gallagher, J. J. (2013). Using problem-based learning to explore unseen academic potential. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 7(1), 111–131.Google Scholar
  29. Gecas, V. (1991). The self-concept as a basis for a theory of motivation. In J. A. Howard & P. L. Callero (Eds.), The self-society dynamic: Cognition, emotion and action (pp. 171–188). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Grant, M. M. (2011). Learning, beliefs, and products: Students’ perspectives with project-based learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 5(2), 37–69.Google Scholar
  31. Guo, Y. (2006). Project-based English as a foreign language education in China: Perspectives and issues. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education. Past, Present and future (pp. 143–155). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Haines, S. (1989). Projects for the EFL classroom: Resource material for teachers. InWalton-on-Thames. UK: Nelson.Google Scholar
  33. Henry, A. (2013). Digital games and ELT: Bridging the authenticity gap. In E. Ushioda (Ed.), International perspectives on motivation (pp. 133–155). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Henry, A. (2014). Swedish students’ beliefs about learning English in and outside of school. In D. Lasagabaster, A. Doiz, & J. M. Sierra (Eds.), Motivation and Foreign language learning: From theory to practice (pp. 93–116). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  35. Henry, A., & Cliffordson, C. (2017). The impact of out-of-school factors on motivation to learn English: Self-discrepancies, beliefs, and experiences of self-authenticity. Applied Linguistics, 38(5), 713–736.Google Scholar
  36. Henry, A., Korp, H., Sundqvist, P., & Thorsen, C. (2018). Motivational strategies and the reframing of English: Activity design and challenges for teachers in contexts of extensive extramural encounters. TESOL Quarterly, 52(2), 247–273.Google Scholar
  37. Henry, A., & Thorsen, C. (2018). Teacher-student relationships and L2 motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 102(1), 218–241.Google Scholar
  38. Henry, J. (1994). Teaching through projects. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  39. Hilton-Jones, U. (1988). Project-based learning for foreign students in an English-speaking environment. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 301 054).Google Scholar
  40. Hughes, R. (2017). Teaching and researching speaking. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Jakar, V. (2006). Knowing the other through multicultural projects in school EFL programs. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education. Past, present and future (pp. 181–193). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. Kenny, B. (1993). Investigative research: How it changes learner status. TESOL Journal, 27(2), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  44. Lamb, M. (2017). The motivational dimension of language teaching. Language Teaching, 50(3), 301–346.Google Scholar
  45. Legutke, M., & Thomas, H. (1991). Process and experience in the language classroom. Harlow, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
  46. Levis, J. M., & Levis, G. M. (2003). A project-based approach to teaching research writing to non-native writers. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 46(3), 210–221.Google Scholar
  47. Levy, M. (1997). Project-based learning for language teachers: Reflecting on the process. In R. Debski, J. Gassin, & M. Smith (Eds.), Language learning through social computing (pp. 181–191). Melbourne: Applied Linguistics Association of Australia and Horwood Language Center.Google Scholar
  48. Locke, E. A. (1996). Motivation through conscious goal setting. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 5, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265–268.Google Scholar
  51. MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., & Sparling, H. (2017). Heritage passions, heritage convictions, and the Rooted L2 Self: Music and Gaelic language learning in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 501–516.Google Scholar
  52. MacIntyre, P. D., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2016). Positive psychology in SLA. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  53. Mitchell, S., Foulger, T. S., Wetzel, K., & Rathkey, C. (2009). The negotiated project approach: Project-based learning without leaving the standards behind. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(4), 339–346.Google Scholar
  54. Moskovsky, C., Alrabai, F., Paolini, S., & Ratcheva, S. (2013). The effects of teachers’ motivational strategies on learners’ motivation: A controlled investigation of second language acquisition. Language Learning, 63, 34–62.Google Scholar
  55. Muir, C. (in press). Directed motivational currents and language education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  56. Muir, C., Florent, J., & Leach, D. (under review). Designing and managing motivational group projects. ELT Journal.Google Scholar
  57. Murphey, T., & Arao, H. (2001). Reported belief changes through near peer role modelling. TESL-EJ, 5(3). Retrieved from http://tesl-ej.org/ej19/a1.html.Google Scholar
  58. Murphey, T., Falout, J., Fukada, Y., & Fukuda, T. (2012). Group dynamics: Collaborative agency in present communities. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan, & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice (pp. 220–238). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  59. Murphey, T., & Murakami, K. (1998). Teacher facilitated near peer role modelling for awareness raising within the Zone of Proximal Development. Academia, 65, 1–29.Google Scholar
  60. Padgett, G. S. (1994). An experiential approach: Field trips, book publication, video production. TESOL Journal, 3(3), 8–11.Google Scholar
  61. Papandreou, A. P. (1994). An application of the projects approach to EFL. English Teaching Forum, 32(3), 41–42.Google Scholar
  62. Park, H., & Hiver, P. (2017). Profiling and tracing motivational change in project-based L2 learning. System, 67, 50–64.Google Scholar
  63. Patton, A. (2012). Work that matters: The teacher’s guide to project-based learning. London: Paul Hamlyn Foundation. Downloaded from: http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Teacher’s%20Guide%20to%20Project-based%20Learning.pdf
  64. Phillips, D., Burwood, S., & Dunford, H. (1999). Projects with young learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Poupore, G. (2014). The influence of content on adult L2 learners’ task motivation: An interest theory perspective. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17(2), 69–90.Google Scholar
  66. Poupore, G. (2016). Measuring group work dynamics and its relation with L2 learners’ task motivation and language production. Language Teaching Research, 20(6), 719–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sak, U. (2004). A synthesis of research on psychological types of gifted adolescents. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 15(2), 70–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Savin-Baden, M., & Howell Major, C. (2004). Foundations of problem-based learning. Berkshire, UK: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Savoie, J. M., & Hughes, A. S. (1994). Problem-based learning as classroom solution. Educational Leadership, 52(3), 54–57.Google Scholar
  70. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing autonomous and controlled reasons for goals as predictors of effort and attainment. Personality and Social Psychology, 24(5), 546–557.Google Scholar
  71. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: the self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 482–497.Google Scholar
  72. Sheldon, K. M., & Houser-Marko, L. (2001). Self-concordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 152–165.Google Scholar
  73. Shernoff, D. J., Abdi, B., Anderson, B., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Flow in schools revisited: Cultivating engaged learners and optimal learning environments. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 211–226). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Shernoff, D. J., & Anderson, B. (2014). Enacting flow and student engagement in the college classroom. In A. C. Parks & S. M. Schueller (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell handbook of positive psychological interventions (pp. 194–212). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  75. Slater, T., Beckett, G. H., & Aufderhaar, C. (2006). Assessing projects as second language and content learning. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education. Past, present and future (pp. 241–260). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  76. Stoller, F. (2006). Establishing a theoretical foundation for project-based learning in second and foreign language contexts. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education (pp. 19–40). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  77. Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. M. Gass & C. G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235–253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  78. Tessema, K. A. (2005). Stimulating writing through project based tasks. English Teaching Forum, 43(4), 22–28.Google Scholar
  79. Tremblay, R., Duplantie, M., & Hout, D. (1990). National core French study: The communicative/experiential syllabus. Ottawa: Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers.Google Scholar
  80. Turnbull, M. S. (1999). Multidimensional project-based teaching in French second language (FSL): A process-product case study. The Modern Language Journal, 83(4), 548–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ushioda, E. (2011a). Language learning motivation, self and identity: Current theoretical perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ushioda, E. (2011b). Motivating learners to speak as themselves. In G. Murray, Q. Gao, & T. Lamb (Eds.), Identity, motivation and autonomy in language learning (pp. 11–24). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  83. Ushioda, E. (2016). Language learning motivation through a small lens: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 49(4), 564–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. van Lier, L. (2006). Foreword. In G. H. Beckett & P. Chamness Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education (pp. xi–xvi). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  85. Vannini, P. (2006). Dead poets’ society: Teaching, publish-or-perish, and professors’ experiences of authenticity. Symbolic Interaction, 29(2), 235–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vannini, P., & Burgess, S. (2009). Authenticity as motivation and aesthetic experience. In P. Vannini & J. P. Williams (Eds.), Authenticity in culture, self, and society (pp. 103–119). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  87. Voerman, L., Meijer, P. C., Korthagen, F. A., & Simons, R. J. (2012). Types and frequencies of feedback interventions in classroom interaction in secondary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1107–1115.Google Scholar
  88. Wood, A., & Head, M. (2004). “Just what the doctor ordered”: The application of problem-based learning to EAP. English for Specific Purposes, 23(1), 3–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations