Advertisement

Motivational Group Dynamics in SLA: The Interpersonal Interaction Imperative

  • Yoshifumi Fukada
  • Joseph Falout
  • Tetsuya Fukuda
  • Tim Murphey
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores in four parts how group dynamics contribute to the motivation and learning of foreign languages inside and outside classrooms. The first part covers basic elements of group dynamics and their connections to the subject of motivation in SLA. The second part describes insights from research into group dynamics from SLA, which brings some important kernels of understanding to date. The third part highlights progressive research methods now entering SLA that can be useful for researching group dynamics. In the fourth part, the discussion moves from research to practice, with suggestions that can help teachers and learners engage all classroom members more frequently and more meaningfully in the processes of learning together, bolstering their motivational group dynamics through the interpersonal interaction imperative.

References

  1. Anderman, L. H. (2002). Academic and social perceptions as predictors of change in middle school students’ sense of school belonging. The Journal of Experimental Education, 72(1), 5–22.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220970309600877 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, J., & Hickey, A. (2007). Autoethnography and teacher development. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2(2), 369–378.  https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v02i02/52189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belbase, S., Luitel, B. C., & Taylor, P. C. (2008). Autoethnography: A method of research and teaching for transformative education. Journal of Education and Research, 1(1), 86–95.  https://doi.org/10.3126/jer.v1i0.7955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). L2 motivation research 2005-2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System, 55, 145–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Busse, V., & Walter, C. (2013). Foreign language learning motivation in higher education: A longitudinal study of motivational changes and their causes. The Modern Language Journal, 97(2), 435–456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12004.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cartwright, D., & Zander, A. (1969). Group dynamics. New York, NY: Harper Row.Google Scholar
  7. Chang, H., Ngunjiri, F., & Hernandez, K. C. (2013). Collaborative autoethnography. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, L. Y. (2007). The influences of group processes on learners’ autonomous beliefs and behaviors. System, 35(3), 322–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, L. Y. (2010). Group processes and EFL learners’ motivation: A study of group dynamics in EFL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 44(1), 129–154.  https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2010.213780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44(3), 417–448.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01113.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Csizér, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The internal structure of language learning motivation and its relationship with language choice and learning effort. The Modern Language Journal, 89(1), 19–36.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2005.00263.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dörnyei, Z. (1997). Psychological processes in cooperative language learning: Group dynamics and motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 482–493.  https://doi.org/10.2307/328891 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dörnyei, Z., & Malderez, A. (1997). Group dynamics and foreign language teaching. System, 25(1), 65–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0346-251x(96)00061-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dörnyei, Z., & Malderez, A. (1999). The role of group dynamics in foreign language learning and teaching. In J. Arnold (Ed.), Affect in language learning (pp. 155–169). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dörnyei, Z., & Murphey, T. (2003). Group dynamics in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duncan, M. (2004). Autoethnography: Critical appreciation of an emerging art. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(4), 28–39.  https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690400300403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dyson, M. (2007). My story in a profession of stories: Auto ethnography—an empowering methodology for educators. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 32(1), 36–48.  https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2007v32n1.3
  18. Eddy-U, M. (2015). Motivation for participation or non-participation in group tasks: A dynamic systems model of task-situated willingness to communicate. System, 50, 43–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ehrman, M. E., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Interpersonal dynamics in second language education: The visible and invisible classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  20. Falout, J. (2014). Circular seating arrangements: Approaching the social crux in language classrooms. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 275–300.  https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.2.6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Falout, J., Murphey, T., Fukuda, T., & Trovela, M. (2013). Japanese EFL learners’ remotivation strategies. In M. Cortazzi & L. Jin (Eds.), Researching cultures of learning (pp. 328–349). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forsyth, D. R., & Burnette, J. (2010). Group processes. In R. F. Baumeister & E. J. Finkel (Eds.), Advanced social psychology: The state of the science (pp. 495–534). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Foster, J., Barkus, E., & Yavorksy, C. (2006). Understanding and using advanced statistics: A practical guide for students. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fukada, Y. (2017). A language learner’s target language-mediated socializing in an affinity space in the host country: An autoethnography. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 2(1), 53–79.  https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.2.1.03fuk CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fukada, Y. (2018). An ethnographic case study of one Korean international student’s TL-mediated socializing in affinity space of the host country. In V. Korhonen & P. Alenius (Eds.), Internalisation and transnationalisation in higher education(pp. 219–236). Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  26. Fukada, Y., Falout, J., Fukuda, T., & Murphey, T. (2019). Visualizing ideal L2 classmates. In J. Vorholt (Ed.), New ways in teaching speaking (2nd ed.) (pp. 31–33). Alexandria, VA: TESOL Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fukada, Y., Murphey, T., Falout, J., & Fukuda, T. (2017). Essential motivational group dynamics: A 3-year panel study. In R. Breeze & C. S. Guinda (Eds.), Essential competencies for English-medium university teaching (pp. 249–266). Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fukuda, T., Fukada, Y., Falout, J., & Murphey, T. (2012). Holistic timing and group framing of motivation. In A. Stewart & N. Sonda (Eds.), JALT2011 conference proceedings (pp. 380–391). Tokyo, Japan: JALT.Google Scholar
  29. Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated language and learning: A critique of traditional schooling. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Goodenow, C., & Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends’ values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 62(1), 60–71.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1993.9943831 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gurvitch, R., Carson, R. L., & Beale, A. (2008). Being a protégé: An autoethnographic view of three teacher education doctoral programs. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(3), 246–262.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13611260802231625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hadfield, J. (1992). Classroom dynamics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hari, J. (2018). Lost connections: Uncovering the real causes of depression–and the unexpected solutions. London, UK: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  34. Jenkins, R. (2008). Social Identity (3rd ed.). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Joe, H., Hiver, P., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017). Classroom social climate, self-determined motivation, willingness to communicate, and achievement: A study of structural relationships in instructed second language settings. Learning and Individual Differences, 53, 133–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1995). Creative controversy: Intellectual challenge in the classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Interaction Book Company.Google Scholar
  37. King, J. (2013). Silence in the second language classrooms of Japanese universities. Applied Linguistics, 34(3), 325–343.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kozaki, Y., & Ross, S. J. (2011). Contextual dynamics in foreign language learning motivation. Language Learning, 61(4), 1328–1354.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00638.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics: Concept, method and reality in social science; social equilibria and social change. Human Relations, 1(1), 5–41.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001872674700100103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created “social climates”. The Journal of Social Psychology, 10(2), 269–299.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1939.9713366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loewen, S., Lavolette, E., Spino, L. A., Papi, M., Schmidtke, J., Sterling, S., et al. (2014). Statistical literacy among applied linguists and second language acquisition researchers. TESOL Quarterly, 48(2), 360–388.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545–562.  https://doi.org/10.2307/330224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mercer, S. (2015). Social network analysis and complex dynamic systems. In Z. Dörnyei, P. D. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 73–82). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  45. Munezane, Y. (2016). Motivation, ideal self and willingness to communicate as the predictors of observed L2 use in the classroom. EUROSLA Yearbook, 16(1), 85–115.  https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.16.04mun CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murphey, T., & Arao, H. (2001). Reported belief changes through near peer role modeling. Tesl-Ej, 5(3), 1–15.Google Scholar
  47. Murphey, T., Falout, J., Fukada, Y., & Fukuda, T. (2012). Group dynamics: Collaborative agency in present communities of imagination. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan, & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice (pp. 220–238). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murphey, T., Falout, J., Fukuda, T., & Fukada, Y. (2014). Socio-dynamic motivating through idealizing classmates. System, 45, 242–253.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oxford, R. L. (1997). Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and interaction: Three communicative strands in the language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 443–456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1997.tb05510.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paulus, P., Kenworthy, J., & Coskun, H. (2012). Group dynamics. In V. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (2nd ed.). London, UK: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  51. Plonsky, L. (2014). Study quality in quantitative L2 research (1990–2010): A methodological synthesis and call for reform. The Modern Language Journal, 98(1), 450–470.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2014.12058.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Regents of University of Michigan. (2016). Research center for group dynamics. Retrieved from. http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/ Google Scholar
  53. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  54. Sari, M. (2012). Sense of school belonging among elementary school students. Çukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 41(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  55. Sasaki, M., Kozaki, Y., & Ross, S. J. (2017). The impact of normative environments on learner motivation and L2 reading ability growth. The Modern Language Journal, 101(1), 163–178.  https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schmuck, R. A., & Schmuck, P. A. (2001). Group processes in the classroom. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  57. Spears, R., Scheepcrs, D., Jetten, J., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N., & Postmes, T. (2004). Entitativity, group distinctiveness, and social identity: Getting and using social structure. In V. Yzerbyt, C. M. Judd, & O. Corneille (Eds.), The psychology of group perception: Perceived variability, entitativity, and essentialism (pp. 293–316). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  58. Tseng, W., & Schmitt, N. (2008). Toward a model of motivated vocabulary learning: A structural equation modeling approach. Language Learning, 58(2), 357–400.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00444.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ushioda, E. (2009). A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation, self and identity. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 215–228). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Winke, P. (2014). Testing hypotheses about language learning using structural equation modeling. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 34, 102–122.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0267190514000075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshifumi Fukada
    • 1
  • Joseph Falout
    • 2
  • Tetsuya Fukuda
    • 3
  • Tim Murphey
    • 4
  1. 1.Meisei UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Nihon UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.International Christian UniversityTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Kanda University of International StudiesChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations