L2 Motivation and Willingness to Communicate

  • Tomoko YashimaEmail author


This chapter examines the theoretical development of willingness to communicate (WTC) as a psychological construct, focusing on the L2 WTC model (MacIntyre, Clément, Dörnyei, & Noels, Modern Language Journal, 82, 545–562, 1998), to address how both trait-like and situated variables influence momentary WTC. A review of earlier quantitative studies and more recent qualitative, situated, and dynamic approaches identifies the current status of knowledge as well as issues and gaps to be filled by future research. The chapter spotlights L2 WTC research with special reference to Asian learners, noting the high concentration of WTC research in Asian EFL. Applying cultural lenses through which to examine this issue should help deepen our understanding of WTC. Finally, the chapter presents pedagogical implications of WTC research and introduces interventional studies designed to enhance WTC.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kansai UniversityOsakaJapan

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