Advertisement

Men in the #MeToo Era

  • Karen BoyleEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Whilst #MeToo and Me Too have centred victim/survivors, what the contemporary moment means for men is a recurring concern. This chapter investigates the position of men in the #MeToo era, focusing first on men as victim/survivors of sexual abuse, including of female perpetrators, before moving on to consider how alleged perpetrators are situated in relation to narratives of victimisation (with a focus on #HimToo and the Kavanaugh hearings) and of monstrosity. Whilst feminist critics have been interested in the connections between “aberrant” and “normal” male behaviour, this chapter demonstrates the enduring appeal of distinction and individualism in understanding male violence. The conclusion connects this with the wider arguments of the book, asserting the importance of understanding #MeToo historically and contextually.

Keywords

Male victims Perpetrators Himpathy #HimToo Brett Kavanaugh Monsters 

References

  1. Arnold, Amanda. 2018. What’s going on with Avital Ronell, the prominent theorist accused of harassment? The Cut. 21 August. https://www.thecut.com/2018/08/avital-ronell-professor-accused-of-harassment-what-to-know.html. Accessed 3 June 2019.
  2. Auletta, Ken. 2002. Beauty and the beast. New Yorker, 8 December.Google Scholar
  3. Benedict, Jeff. 1997. Public Heroes, Private Felons: Athletes and Crimes Against Women. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Benedict, Helen. 2013. Covering rape responsibly. WMC: Women Under Siege (Blog). 1 February. http://www.womensmediacenter.com/women-under-siege/covering-rape-responsibly. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  5. Biskind, Peter. 2004. Down and Dirty Pictures: Miramax, Sundance, and the Rise of Independent Film. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  6. Boyle, Karen. 2005. Media and Violence: Gendering the Debates. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Boyle, Karen. 2018a. Hiding in plain sight: gender, sexism and press coverage of the Jimmy Savile case. Journalism Studies 19 (11): 1562–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyle, Karen. 2018b. Television and/as testimony in the Jimmy Savile case. Critical Studies in Television 13 (4): 387–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyle, Karen. 2019. What’s in a name? Theorising the inter-relationships of gender and violence. Feminist Theory 20 (1): 19–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyle, Karen and Chamil Rathnayake. 2019. #HimToo and the networking of misogyny in the age of #MeToo. Feminist Media Studies. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2019.1661868
  11. Boyle, Karen and Jenny Reburn. 2015. Portrait of a serial killer: Intertextuality and gender in the portrait film. Feminist Media Studies 15 (2): 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradley, Linda. 2018. “I was terrified, and I was humiliated.”: #MeToo’s male accusers, one year later. Vanity Fair, 4 October.Google Scholar
  13. Brantley, Kayla. 2018. Lesbian feminist scholar, 66, is SUSPENDED by NYU after sending racy texts and “inappropriately touching” her 34-year-old married gay former doctoral student. MailOnline, 14 August. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6057541/World-renowned-female-NYU-professor-facing-MeToo-moment.html. Accessed 10 June 2019.
  14. Brook, Vincent. 2017. Still an empire of their own: how Jews remain atop a reinvented Hollywood. In From Shtetl to Stardom: Jews and Hollywood. (An Annual Review of the Casden Institute for the Study of the Jewish Role in American Life: Volume 14.) Eds. Michael Renov and Vincent Brook, 3–21. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butler, Judith. 2018a. Judith Butler explains letter in support of Avital Ronell. Chronicle of Higher Education, 20 August.Google Scholar
  16. Butler, Judith. 2018b. My life, your life: equality and the philosophy of non-violence (part 2). Public lecture. University of Glasgow. 2 October.Google Scholar
  17. Cameron, Deborah and Elizabeth Frazer. 1987. The Lust to Kill: A Feminist Investigation of Sexual Murder. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  18. Chu, Andrea Long. 2018. I worked with Avital Ronell. I believe her accuser. Chronicle of Higher Education, 20 August.Google Scholar
  19. Connell, R.W. and Messerschmidt, James W. 2005. Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept. Gender and Society 19 (6): 829–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1992. Whose story is it anyway? Feminist and antiracist appropriations of Anita Hill. In Race-ing Justice, En-Gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality. Ed. Toni Morrison, 402–440. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  21. Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 2018. We still haven’t learned from Anita Hill’s testimony. New York Times, 27 September.Google Scholar
  22. Criado-Perez, Caroline. 2019. Invisible Women: Exposing Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  23. Davies, Michelle and Paul Rogers. 2006. Perceptions of male victims in depicted sexual assaults: a review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior 11: 367–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DiBennardo, Rebecca A. 2018. Ideal victims and monstrous offenders: how the news media represent sexual predators. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World. 5 October. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2378023118802512. Accessed 3 June 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doe, Emily. 2016. Victim impact statement. https://www.sccgov.org/sites/da/newsroom/newsreleases/Documents/B-Turner%20VIS.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  26. Duggan, Lisa. 2018. The full catastrophe. Bully Bloggers (Blog). 18 August. https://bullybloggers.wordpress.com/2018/08/18/the-full-catastrophe/. Accessed 3 June 2019.
  27. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi. 2015. Scene of the crime: news discourse or rape in India and the geopolitics of sexual assault. Feminist Media Studies 15 (2): 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ellis, Emma Grey. 2018. How #HimToo became the anti #MeToo of the Kavanaugh hearings. Wired, 27 September. https://www.wired.com/story/brett-kavanaugh-hearings-himtoo-metoo-christine-blasey-ford/. Accessed 27 November 2018.
  29. Greenberg, Zoe. 2018. What happens to #MeToo when a feminist is the accused? New York Times, 13 August.Google Scholar
  30. Hearn, Jeff. 1998. The Violences of Men. London & Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Jamel, Joanna. 2014. Do the print-based media provide a gender-biased representation of male rape victims. Internet Journal of Criminology https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/b93dd4_9378310f905442eaa439aba1032586a5.pdf. Accessed 3 June 2019.
  32. Javaid, Aliraza. 2016. Feminism, masculinity and male rape: bringing male rape “out of the closet”. Journal of Gender Studies 25 (3): 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jordan, Jan. 2004. The Word of a Woman? Police, Rape and Belief. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kavanaugh, Brett. 2018. I am an independent, impartial judge. Wall Street Journal, 4 October.Google Scholar
  35. Kelly, Liz. 1988. Surviving Sexual Violence. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  36. Kelly, Liz. 1996a. When does the speaking profit us?: reflections on the challenges of developing feminist perspectives on abuse and violence by women. In Women, Violence and Male Power, eds. Marianne Hester, Liz Kelly and Jill Radford, 34–49. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kelly, Liz. 1996b. Weasel words: paedophiles and the cycle of abuse. Trouble and Strife 33: 44–49.Google Scholar
  38. Kitzinger, Jenny. 1999. The ultimate neighbour from hell?: stranger danger and the media representation of “paedophilia”. In Social Policy, the Media and Misrepresentation, ed. Bob Franklin, 207–221. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Leiter, Brian. 2018. Blaming the victim is apparently OK when the accused in a Title IX proceeding is a feminist literary theorist. Leiter Reports: A Philosophy Blog, 10 June. https://leiterreports.typepad.com/blog/2018/06/blaming-the-victim-is-apparently-ok-when-the-accused-is-a-feminist-literary-theorist.html. Accessed 31 May 2019.
  40. Ludington, Charles, Lynne Brookes and Elizabeth Swisher. 2018. We were Brett Kavanaugh’s drinking buddies. We don’t think he should be confirmed. No one should be able to lie their way onto the Supreme Court. Washington Post (Blogs), 5 October.Google Scholar
  41. Malloy, Allie, Kate Sullivan and Jeff Zeleny. 2018. Trump mocks Christine Blasey Ford’s testimony, tells people to “think of your sons”. CNN. 3 October. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/02/politics/trump-mocks-christine-blasey-ford-kavanaugh-supreme-court/index.html. Accessed 5 June 2019.
  42. Manne, Kate. 2018a. Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Manne, Kate. 2018b. Brett Kavanaugh and America’s “himpathy” reckoning. New York Times, 26 September.Google Scholar
  44. Mardorossian, Carine M. 2002. Towards a new feminist theory of rape. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 27 (3): 743–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marghitu, Stefania. 2018. “It’s just art”: auteur apologism in the post-Weinstein era. Feminist Media Studies 18 (3): 491–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morrison, Toni. ed. 1992a. Race-ing Justice, En-Gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  47. Morrison, Toni. 1992b. Introduction: Friday on the Potomac. In Race-ing Justice, En-Gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality. Ed. Toni Morrison, vii–xxx. New York: PantheonGoogle Scholar
  48. Mulder, Eva, Antony Pemberton and Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets. 2019. The feminising effect of sexual violence in third-party perceptions of male and female victims. Sex Roles. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01036-w.
  49. O’Connell, Jennifer. 2018. #HimToo: What happens if the aggressor is a woman? Irish Times, 25 August.Google Scholar
  50. O’Neil, Luke. 2018. #HimToo: how an attempt to criticise #MeToo went delightfully wrong. Guardian, 9 October.Google Scholar
  51. Painter, Nell Irvin. 1992. Hill, Thomas, and the use of racial stereotype. In Race-ing Justice, En-Gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality. Ed. Toni Morrison, 200–214. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  52. Perren, Alisa. 2012. Indie, Inc: Miramax and the Transformation of Hollywood in the 1990s. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  53. Renov, Michael and Vincent Brook. 2017. Editorial introduction. In From Shtetl to Stardom: Jews and Hollywood. (An Annual Review of the Casden Institute for the Study of the Jewish Role in American Life: Volume 14.) Eds. Michael Renov and Vincent Brook, ix-xvi. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Romero-Sánchez, Mónica, Barbara Krahé, Miguel Moya and Jesús L. Megías. 2018. Alcohol-related victim behaviour and rape myth acceptance as predictors of victim blame in sexual assault cases. Violence Against Women 24 (9): 1052–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Romito, Patrizia. 2008. A Deafening Silence – Hidden Violence Against Women and Children. Bristol: Policy.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ross, Andrew. 1992. The private parts of justice. In Race-ing Justice, En-Gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality. Ed. Toni Morrison, 40–60. New York: PantheonGoogle Scholar
  57. Ryan, Lisa. 2018. Christine Blasey Ford is still being put through hell. The Cut. 8 November. https://www.thecut.com/2018/11/kavanaugh-accuserchristine-blasey-ford-harassment.html. Accessed 27 November 2018.
  58. Salter, Michael and Selda Dagistanli. 2015. Cultures of abuse: “sex grooming”, organised abuse and race in Rochdale, UK. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 4(2): 50–64.Google Scholar
  59. Sela-Shayovitz, Revital. 2015. “They are all good boys”: the role of the Israeli media in the social construction of gang rape. Feminist Media Studies 15 (3): 411–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shier, Allie and Eran Shor. 2016. “Shades of foreign evil”: “honor killings” and “family murders”: in the Canadian press. Violence Against Women 22 (10): 1163–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Takla, Nefertiti. 2018. Reitman vs. Ronell: rethinking the role of gender and patriarchy in sexual harassment cases. Bully Bloggers (Blog). 7 September. https://bullybloggers.wordpress.com/2018/09/07/reitman-vs-ronell-rethinking-the-role-of-gender-and-patriarchy-in-sexual-harassment-cases/. Accessed 3 June 2019.
  62. Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers, Susie Balderston, Consuelo Corradi, Brian Francis, Markku Heiskanen, Karin Helweg-Larsen, Lut Mergaert, Philippa Olive, Emma Palmer, Heidi Stöckl and Sofia Strid. 2017. The Concept and Measurement of Violence Against Women and Men. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Waterhouse-Watson, Deb. 2012. Framing the victim: sexual assault and Australian footballers on television. Australian Feminist Studies 27 (71): 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Waterhouse-Watson, Deb. 2013. Athletes, Sexual Assault, and “Trials by Media”. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Weinstein, Harvey. 2017. Statement. New York Times, 5 October.Google Scholar
  66. Weiss, Karen G. 2010. Male sexual victimization: examining men’s experiences of rape and sexual assault. Men and Masculinities 12 (3): 275–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zacharek, Stephanie, Eliana Dockterman and Haley Sweetland Edwards. 2017. The silence breakers. Time, December.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of HumanitiesUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations