Movement disorders is not an area of neurology known to have many clinical emergencies. However, their recognition is very important since urgent care can be needed in these cases. In this chapter we will review the more frequent and more severe emergencies in movement disorders, going from their cause to the diagnosis and treatment approach. For practical purposes, we will classify movement disorders emergencies in either hypokinetic or hyperkinetic. As it is the case for all movement disorders, careful history of the patient and physical examination is key to a correct identification of the problem and treatment strategy approach. For acute movement disorders presenting in the Emergency Department or in the hospital, a diligent review of medications taken by the patients is particularly necessary.
KeywordsMovement disorders Emergency Drug-induced movement disorders Acute parkinsonism Acute chorea Acute dystonia Status dystonicus Myoclonus Tic status
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