Supercomplexity in Interaction: The 4Es

  • Victoria OrangeEmail author


After describing complex systems theory in Chapter  2. This chapter gives a detailed definition of interaction and how it can be considered to be a supercomplex adaptive system. It starts by outlining different approaches to interaction drawing on different fields of research and, crucially, demonstrates why interaction can be considered to be a supercomplex adaptive system by mapping the features of such a system onto the concept of interaction as it is seen here. It puts forward a novel way to visualise interaction by presenting the 4Es of interaction, which are Expression, Encounter, Education and Emotion. The components of the sub-systems of interaction are also discussed and repackaged into sub-components of the 4Es model along with additional ones.


Interaction Expression Encounter Education Emotion 4Es of interaction 


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Language and Global StudiesUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

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