Complex and Supercomplex Adaptive Systems

  • Victoria OrangeEmail author


This chapter starts by looking at complex systems theory and, more importantly, complex adaptive systems theory; these systems are defined, their features are outlined and the items that make up the systems are described. Important phenomena such as boundaries and balance are addressed. It is also shown how complex systems theory fits in with other systems theories. An important point in this chapter is the introduction of supercomplex systems and, more precisely, supercomplex adaptive systems and the characteristics of them. It is important to understand these systems and how they work as they are developed in detail in the subsequent chapters. This chapter ends with a section outlining how the term supercomplexity has been used in other work and how it is used in this book.


Complex systems theory Complex adaptive systems theory Boundaries Balance Supercomplex systems Supercomplex adaptive systems Supercomplexity 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Language and Global StudiesUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

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