Advertisement

Unbundling Professional Expertise

  • Edgar A BurnsEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Professions are no longer the primary containers and controllers of expertise that they once were. Professional expertise is the second of the two bundled claims of historic professionalism (goodness, expertness). Expertise is being unbundled in three ways today. First, at the start of the post-professional transition, professional decision-making was believed to be incompatible with organisational control. We now understand that is not true, or only in certain respects, and managing expertise is key. Second, emerging digital technologies are starting to impact professional work, moving beyond unskilled work. Third, current global unbundling of professional expertise means unreflective assumptions of western professional dominance will be challenged in new ways. These unbundling pressures are shaped by new stakeholders in the production and consumption of professional expertise.

References

  1. Alford, W. P. (2011). ‘Second lawyers, first principles’: Lawyers, rice-roots legal workers, and the battle over legal professionalism in China. In W. Alford, K. Winston, & W. C. Kirby (Eds.), Prospects for the professions in China (pp. 48–77). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Mosaiwi, M. (2018, February 6). People with depression use language differently—Here’s how to spot it. BigThink. http://bigthink.com/the-conversation/people-with-depression-use-language-differently-nil-heres-how-to-spot-it.
  3. Al-Mosaiwi, M., & Johnstone, T. (2018). In an absolute state: Elevated use of absolutist words is a marker specific to anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Clinical Psychological Science, 6(4), 529–542.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617747074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, R. (2016). The great convergence: Information technology and the new globalization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, H. S. (1970). The nature of a profession. In H. S. Becker (Ed.), Sociological work: Method and substance (pp. 87–103). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Brooking, T. (1980). A history of dentistry in New Zealand. Dunedin, New Zealand: New Zealand Dental Association.Google Scholar
  7. Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  8. Callaghan, J. (2014). Professions and professionalisation. In T. Teo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of critical psychology. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, L., Finn, R., Wilkinson, A., & Arnold, J. (2002). Professional work and management. International Studies of Management & Organization, 32(2), 3–24.Google Scholar
  10. Damelang, A., Haupt, A., & Abraham, M. (2017). Economic consequences of occupational deregulation. Acta Sociologica, 1(1), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699316688513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esteva, A., Krupel, B., et al. (2017). Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks. Nature, 542, 115–118. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature2105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eubanks, V. (2018). Automating inequality: How high-tech tools profile police, and punish the poor. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  13. Evetts, J. (1999). Professions: Changes and continuities. International Review of Sociology, 9(1), 7585.Google Scholar
  14. Ford, M. (2015). Rise of the robots: Technology and the threat of a jobless future. Grand Haven, MI: Brilliance Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Freidson, E. (1970). Professional dominance. New York: Atherton.Google Scholar
  16. Fu, M. R., Wang, Y., Qiu, Z., et al. (2018). Machine learning for detection of lymphedema among breast cancer survivors. mHealth, 4(5), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gereffi, G. (1994). The organisation of buyer-driven global commodity chains: How US retailers shape overseas production networks. In G. Gereffi & M. Korzeniewicz (Eds.), Commodity chains and global capitalism (pp. 96–122). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  18. Gowers, R., & Aminoff, J. (2017, July 25). The big business revolution: Why the future is blockchain. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/the-big-business-revolution-why-the-future-is-blockchain-78409.
  19. Green, D. (2016, September 20). The world’s top 100 economies: 31 countries; 69 corporations. The World Bank. http://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/world-s-top-100-economies-31-countries-69-corporations.
  20. Hurst, D. (2018, February 6). Japan: Robots will care of 80% of elderly by 2020. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/feb/06/japan-robots-will-care-for-80-of-elderly-by-2020.
  21. Johnson, T. J. (1972). Professions and power. London: Macmillan. Republished Routledge, 2016.Google Scholar
  22. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  23. Kaigwa, M. (2015). Africa’s mobile revolution. https://10innovations.alumniportal.com/africas-mobile-revolution.html.
  24. Kreutz, C., & Schwaab, J. (2014). Africa’s mobile revolution: How the cell phone is transforming the continent. Bonn, Germany: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development/Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. https://10innovations.alumniportal.com/fileadmin/10innovations/dokumente/GIZ-10innovations-04_Mobile-Africa-Brochure.pdf.
  25. Kuhlmann, E. (2013). Sociology of professions: Towards international context-sensitive approaches. South African Review of Sociology, 44(2), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuhlmann, E. (2015). Opening a dialogue: The professions in world perspective. http://www.isa-sociology.org/pdfs/rc52_professions_in_world_perspective.pdf.
  27. Larson, M. S. (2008). Response to David Sciulli’s ‘Revisionism in sociology of professions today: Conceptual approaches by Larson’. Sociologica, 2(3), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.2383/28766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lesthaeghe, R. (2010). The unfolding story of the second demographic transition. Population and Development Review, 36(2), 211–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lupton, D. (2014). Digital sociology. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mayer-Schonberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2013). Big data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work and think. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  31. Mclaughlin, J., & Webster, A. (1998). Rationalising knowledge: IT systems, professional identities and power. The Sociological Review, 46(4), 781–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mishra, A. (2012). China has become the preferred destination for medical education. University World News. http://Www.Universityworldnews.Com/Article.Php?Story=20120904100946519.
  33. Nelson, E. (2016). Brace yourself: The most disruptive phase of globalization is just beginning. Quartz. http://qz.com/854257/brace-yourself-the-most-disruptive-phase-of-globalization-is-just-beginning/.
  34. Noordegraaf, M. (2015). Hybrid professionalism and beyond: (New) forms of public professionalism in changing organizational and societal contexts. Journal of Professions & Organization, 2(2), 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Neill, K. (2017). Weapons of math destruction. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  36. Orton-Jones, K., et al. (Eds.). (2013). Digital sociology. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  37. Otte, P. (2014). Developing technology: The quest for a new theoretical framework for understanding the role of technology in human development. Technology & Society, 38, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pardo-Guerra, J. (2013). Trillions out of ones: The sociology of finance encounters the digital age. In K. Orton-Jones, et al. (Eds.), Digital sociology (pp. 125–138). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pemer, F., Sieweke, J., & Werr, A. (2018). The relationship between national culture and the use of professional services: Evidence from two cross-country studies. Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 24(4), 314–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Possamai-Inesedy, A., & Nixon, A. (2017). A place to stand: Digital sociology and the Archimedean effect. Journal of Sociology, 53(4), 865–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Redbird, B. (2017). The new closed shop? The economic and structural effects of occupational licensure. American Sociological Review, 82(3), 600–624. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122417706463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roser, M., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (n.d.). Tertiary education: Empirical view. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/tertiary-education.
  43. Royal Commission. (2017). Royal commission into institutional responses to child sexual abuse [Australia]. Vols. 1–17. https://www.childabuseroyalcommission.gov.au/our-inquiry.
  44. Sandberg, D. (2017). Medical tourism: An emerging global healthcare industry. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 10(4), 281–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/20479700.2017.1296213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Savage, M. (2017). Sociology and the digital: A response to Alphia Possamai-Inesedy and Alan Nixon. Journal of Sociology, 53(4), 885–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Savage, M., & Burrows, R. (2007). Reflections on the coming crisis of empirical sociology. Sociology, 41(5), 885–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Savage, M., & Burrows, R. (2009). Some further reflections on the coming crisis of empirical sociology. Sociology, 43(4), 762–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schofer, E., & Meyer, J. (2005). The worldwide expansion of higher education in the twentieth century. American Sociological Review, 70(6), 898–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Seddon, J. (2005). Freedom from command and control (2nd ed.). New York: Productivity Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Susskind, R. (2016, April 14). The future of the professions. Artificial Intelligence and the Law Conference at Vanderbilt University. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xs0iQSyBoDE.
  51. Susskind, R., & Susskind, D. (2015a). The future of professions: How technology will transform the work of human experts. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Susskind, R., & Susskind, D. (2015b, October). The future of professions. YouTube Google Talk. London. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulXwTpW2oFI.
  53. Vincent, J. (2017, January 26). Artificial intelligence can spot skin cancer as well as a trained doctor. The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2017/1/26/14396500/ai-skin-cancer-detection-stanford-university.
  54. Wajcman, J. (2017). Automation: Is it really different this time? The British Journal of Sociology, 68(1), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Waikato UniversityNapierNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations