Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Upper Limb Disorders and Low Back Pain Among Informal Workers of Hand-Operated Rebar Benders

  • Sunisa ChaikliengEmail author
  • Pornnapa Suggaravetsiri
  • Wiwat Sungkhabut
  • Jenny Stewart
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1026)


Hand-operated rebar bender work involves physical exertion and repetitive movement of upper extremities that may cause upper limb disorders (ULDs) and low back pain (LBP). This cross-sectional analytic study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for ULDs and LBP among hand-operated rebar benders. Data were collected from 241 workers through questionnaires, lighting measurements, and physical fitness test. Risk factors were indicated by multiple logistic regression analysis using adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) at p < 0.05. During the 12 months up to data collection the highest prevalence of ULDs occurred at the wrists/hands (78.8%) and shoulders (46.9%). LBP prevalence was 68.9%. The risk factors significantly associated with wrists/hands pain were poor grip strength (ORadj = 2.69), smoking (ORadj = 4.44), work experience >5 years (ORadj = 2.34). The significant risk factors for LBP were age ≥50 years (ORadj = 1.88), work experience >5 years (ORadj = 1.89), and work hours ≥8 h/day (ORadj = 3.44). Risk factors for shoulders pain were workdays >5 days/week, work discomfort (SWI ≥ 2), work experience >5 years. The findings of risk factors are useful as a basis for surveillance to prevent occupational diseases among informal workers.


Wrists pain Low back pain Informal worker Subjective Workload Index 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunisa Chaiklieng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Pornnapa Suggaravetsiri
    • 3
  • Wiwat Sungkhabut
    • 4
  • Jenny Stewart
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public HealthKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH)Khon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public HealthKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  4. 4.The Office of Disease Prevention and Control, 5th Nakhon RatchasimaNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  5. 5.School of Rehabilitation and Occupation StudiesAUT UniversityAucklandNew Zealand

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