Presentation and Diagnosis

  • Bob Yang
  • Steve FoleyEmail author
Part of the In Clinical Practice book series (ICP)


The classical symptom of a UTI is cystitis—a group of symptoms including dysuria (pain on passing urine), frequency (urinating often), and urgency (strong sudden desires to urinate, sometimes with difficulty in reaching the toilet) with lower abdominal pain. In general systemic symptoms are mild or absent in cystitis. The urine itself may appear odorous or cloudy.


  1. 1.
    Al-Badr A, Al-Shaikh G. Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women: a review. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013;13(3):359–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bent S, Nallamothu BK, Simel DL, Fihn SD, Saint S. Does this woman have an acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection? JAMA. 2002;287(20):2701–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lawrentschuk N, Ooi J, Pang A, Naidu KS, Bolton DM. Cystoscopy in women with recurrent urinary tract infection. Int J Urol. 2006;13(4):350–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    van Haarst EP, van Andel G, Heldeweg EA, Schlatmann TJ, van der Horst HJ. Evaluation of the diagnostic workup in young women referred for recurrent lower urinary tract infections. Urology. 2001;57(6):1068–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Berkshire HospitalReading, GBUK

Personalised recommendations