The Middle East North Africa Socio-economic Challenges
Middle Eastern societies have been facing fundamental social, economic and political challenges in recent decades. Many of these challenges were highlighted by the chain of political uprisings across the region that began in 2011. These challenges have arisen partly from changes in a number of social factors. Identities, social and individual values, the definition of the social roles for different genders and state–citizen relations have all begun to change across the region. The degree to which such changes have taken root differs between different countries; nevertheless, the change is widespread and visible in every part of the region. Such changes have presented societies with new challenges for which neither policymakers nor the public have solutions to offer. This chapter will review a number of key socio-economic challenges that face the region.